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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
light microscpe (LM)
an optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens
resolving power
a measure of the clarity of the image
organelle
one of several formed bodies with a specialized function, suspended in the cytoplasm and found in eukaryotic cells
electron microscopes (EM)
A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope.
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
used to study the fine details of cell surfaces
cell fractionation
the disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation
ultracentrifuges
instruments used to fractionate cell, a merry-go-round for test tubes capable of spinning at various speeds
prokaryotic cell
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea
nucleoid
a dense rigion of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
cytoplasm
the entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane
cytosol
the semifluid portion of the cytoplasm
plasma membrane
the membrane at the boundry of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulation the cell's chemical composition
nucleus
The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
chromosomes
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. See chromatin.
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes
ribosomes
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus, functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
endomembrane system
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
smooth ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
glycoproteins
Proteins that are covalently bonded to carbohydrates.
transport vesicles
Vessels in transit from one part of the cell to another
golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
lysosome
A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
food vacuoles
Vacuoles formed by phagocytosis
Contractile vacuoles
Pumps excess water out of the cell
vacuole
A membrane-enclosed sac taking up most of the interior of a mature plant cell and containing a variety of substances important in plant reproduction, growth, and development.
tonoplast
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap.
mitochondrion
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
chloroplasts
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
cristae
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
mictochondrial matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
plastids
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
granum
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
micortubule
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
microfilament
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
plastids
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
granum
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
micortubule
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
microfilament
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
intermediate filament
A component of the cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
centrosome
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and important during cell division; also called microtubule-organizing center.
centriole
A structure in an animal cell, composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles, which are involved in cell division.
flagellum
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
cilium
A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
dynein
A large contractile protein forming the sidearms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella.
actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
pseudopodium
A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
cytoplasmic streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
cell wall
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In the case of plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid, and is the primary constituent of wood.
primary cell wall
Relatively thin and flexible wall
middle lamella
thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.
secondary cell wall
Strong and more rigid wall, and is the primary constituent of wood
extracellular matrix (ECM)
The main ingredients of this are glycoproteins secreted by the cells.
collagen
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
proteoglycans
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells, rich in carbohydrate.
fibronectin
These kind of glycoproteins bind to the receptor protein called integrins
integrin
A receptor protein that builts into the plasma membrane
plasmodesma
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells.