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9 Cards in this Set

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What are the major conclusions/findings of the Wolfgang studies?
Cohort study of almost 10,000 Philly boys from birth-18 yrs--> 35% arrested (of these, 46%= single arrest, 54%= 2+ arrests)
Of the repeat offenders, 2/3 had 2-4 arrests, 1/3 had 5+; these 1/3 make up 18% of all delinquents and 6% of entire pop and commit majority of violent crimes (71% all murders, 73% all rapes, 83% all robberies)
What is the difference between fireplay and firesetting? Why is this important for juvenile justice?
Fireplay is merely experimental for young kids. Firesetting is performed instrumentally, suggesting psychological problems.
What % of the US pop is comprised of juveniles? Over next 15 yrs, is this pop going to go up, down, or steady?
The youth make up 1/4th (70 mil) of entire U.S. pop (285 mil). In 2020, youth % expected to remain stable at 24%.
What does the term "at-risk" youth mean? What main factors lead a youth to be labeled tihs? Who are the "resilient" youths?
At-risk refers to young people who are vulnerable to negative conseq of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality. Factors include:
1. family attachment
2. parenting practices
3. education, neighborhood
4. SES
5. peers

If present, all these --> resiliency (ability to overcome major life obstacles)
Why was it argued that the "progress of society depends on proper socialization of young males."? It is particularly important for young males to be taught what 2 lessons about their behavior?
Proper socialization of young males teaches norms and and values of society. They should be taught:

1. control of aggression
2. faithfulness to woman and responsibility of children
Before new and tougher "parental responsibility" laws are passed what should first be done? What is the purpose of parental responsilibity laws?
Parental responsibility laws should start w/ effective family polcy. Factors to consider are abuse, neglect, contribution to delinq of minor, and parental civil liability statutes (parents respons for up to $2,500 of property damage).
What is the prime reason to have a juvenile justice system that shields youths from full responsibility for their behavior?
Juvenile justice system exists b/c minds of youths not fully developed (CAT scans show full dev at 25 yrs old).
B/t 1865-1900 what changes took place in US society that led to the creation of the JJS? What other 2 major types of laws impacting children were passed during this time? What new social group did all of these changes produce?
Industrialization era (1865-1900) of young males (urbanization, immigration, compulsory ed and child labor laws)--> no financial indep, transition from scohol to work and segregation by age group--> adolescent youth culture
Explain the 4 step social learning/developmental process by which a youth becomes a vicious, aggressive human capable of unjustified violence and murder.
4 stage process of violence:

1. Brutalization- violent subjugation (victim of violence), personal horrification (witness to violence), violent coaching (verbal learning of violence)

2. Belligerancy- violence due to provocation

3. Violent performances

4. Aggression