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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Accident proneness
The general notion that certain individuals are more likely to have accidents than others. Although accident proneness does not exist as a general syndrome, research indicates that certain individual difference characteristics may be associated with unsafe behavior.
Adjustments or modifications to the work environment provided by an employer to enable people with disabilities to have equal employment opportunities. A reasonable accommodation must be provided if a person with a disability needs one in order to apply for a job, perform a job, or enjoy benefits equal to those offered to other employees.
American with Disabilities Act (of 1990)
Federal legislation that requires employers to give applicants and employees with disabilities the same consideration as other applicants and employees, and to make certain adaptations in the work environment to accommodate disabilities. Applies to a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities (e.g., sitting, standing, or sleeping).
A method of completing work through the use of mechanical or electrical devices rather than through direct human action.
Behavioral approach
Approach begun by a group of leadership researchers at Ohio State University; focused on the kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles and identified two major types of leader behavior: consideration and initiating structure.
Biological approach
Approach to work design and redesign used to reduce injuries and increase the physical comfort of the workers through the reduction of fatigue and discomfort.
An extreme state of psychological strain resulting from a prolonged response to chronic job stressors that exceed an individual's resources to cope with them.
Charismatic leadership theory
Approach with many different versions of the notion that charisma is related to leadership; (1) in a crisis situation, followers will perceive charismatic characteristics in an individual and accept that person as a leader; (2) certain leader behaviors (use of innovative strategies) contribute to a charismatic aura.
The degree to which team members desire to remain in the team and are committed to team goals.
Compressed workweek
Schedule that permits an employee to work for longer than eight hours a day and fewer than five days a week; most common is the 4/10 plan, which permits the worker to accumulate the 40 hours of the workweek in four days.
Contingency (approach)
Approach that was proposed to take into account the role of the situation in the exercise of leadership.
Device such as a keyboard or mouse that permits an individual to take actions.
Coordination loss
Reduced group performance that occurs when team members expend their energies in different directions or fail to synchronize or coordinate their work.
Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)
A common form of workplace injury involving the upper extremities (arm, shoulder, wrist).
Deep acting
A type of emotional labor that consists of managing one's feelings, including the emotions required by the job.
Demographic diversity
Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity.
Type of burnout that occurs when individuals become hardened by their job and tend to treat clients or patients like objects.
Device such as a computer screen that provides an individual with information.
Distributive Justice
Type of justice that focuses on the perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members.
Traditionally refers to differences in demographic characteristics, but also includes differences in values, abilities, interests, and experiences.
Emotion focused coping
Type of coping that involves reducing the emotional response to a problem by avoiding, minimizing, or distancing oneself from the problem.
Emotional exhaustion
Type of burnout that occurs when individuals feel emotionally drained by work.
Emotional labor
Regulation of one's emotions to meet job or organizational demands. Such regulation can be achieved through surface acting and deep acting.
Equality norm
Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive approximately equal rewards; most common foundation for defining fairness in Scandinavian and Asian countries.
The study of the physical demands of work such as reaching, stretching, lifting, and carrying.
A stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome in which overall resistance drops and adverse consequences (e.g., burnout, severe illness, and even death) can result unless stress is reduced.
Fight or Flight reaction
Adaptive response to stressful situations exhibited by animals and humans in which they choose to either fight or attempt to escape.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
A nearly identical response sequence to almost any disease or trauma (e.g., poisoning, injury, psychological stress); identified by Hans Seyle.
Great man/woman theory
Theory developed by historians who examined the life of a respected leader for clues leading to his or her greatness; often focused on a galvanizing experience or an admirable trait (persistence, optimism, or intelligence) that the leader possesses to a singular degree.
Group polarization
The tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions (e.g., more cautious or more risky) than those made by individuals.
Group think
A mode of thinking engaged in by people deeply involved in a cohesive group and when group members' desire for agreement overrides their motivation to appraise alternative courses of action realistically.
A set of personality characteristics that provide resistance to stress. Hardy individuals feel in control of their lives, have a sense of commitment to their family and their work goals and values, and see unexpected change as a challenge.
Human- computer interface (HCI)
The interaction between a human and a computer.
Human error
The view that if humans can be taken out of the system, the threat of accidents will be greatly reduced; often used as an explanation for a catastrophic accident.
Human factors
Approach that uses knowledge of human capabilities and limitations to design systems, organizations, jobs, machines, tools, and consumer products for safe, efficient, and comfortable human use; synonymous with human factors engineering or human factors psychology.
Individualized consideration
Leaders deal with others as individuals; consider individual needs, abilities, and aspirations; listen attentively; and advise, coach, and teach.
Input component
Component that provides information to a human or computer.
Inspirational motivation
Leaders articulate an appealing vision of the future, challenge followers with high standards, talk optimistically with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done.
Intellectual stimulation
Leaders question old assumptions, values, and beliefs; stimulate new ways of doing things, and encourage expression of ideas and reasons.
Interactional Justice
Type of justice concerned with the sensitivity with which employees are treated; associated with the extent to which an employee feels respected by the employer.
Interpersonal competence
Includes social awareness and social skills such as the ability to resolve conflict and foster a spirit of cooperation.
Interpersonal conflict
Negative interactions with co-workers, supervisors, or clients which can range from heated arguments to subtle incidents of unfriendly behavior.
Job maturity
A subordinate's job-related ability, skills, and knowledge.
Laissez-faire leader(ship)
The lowest level of leadership identified by Bass who contrasted it with transactional leadership and transformational leadership.
Leader effectiveness
The study of which behaviors on the part of a designated leader (regardless of how that position was achieved) lead to an outcome valued by the work group or organization.
Leader emergence
The study of the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, thereby examining the basis on which they were elected, appointed, or simply accepted.
LMX theory (leader-member exchange theory)
Leadership theory that proposed that leaders adopt different behaviors with individual subordinates and that the particular behavior pattern of the leader develops over time and depends to a large extent on the quality of the leader-subordinate relationship.
Locus of control (LOC)
A construct that refers to the belief of individuals that what happens to them is under their control (internal LOC) or beyond their control (external LOC).
Low personal accomplishment
A type of burnout in which individuals feel they cannot deal with problems effectively and understand or identify with others' problems.
Mechanistic approach
Approach to work design and redesign that is used to increase productive efficiency through the modification of tasks or equipment.
Motivational approach (to work design)
Approach that assumes that a worker is capable of behaving safely, but may choose not to, so the worker must be motivated to behave safely.
Musculoskeletal disorders
Disorders of the lower back and upper extremities (arm, shoulder, wrist) which are the most commonly studied injuries related to workplace safety.
Need norm
Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive rewards in proportion to their needs.
“National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health”"
One of two federal agencies established to maintain and enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act; responsible for conducting research on safety and work stress.
The informal and sometimes unspoken rules that teams adopt to regulate members' behavior.
Organizational fit model
Model that accounts for the way people choose jobs by examining the match between the personality and values of the individual and the organization.
Organizational Justice
Type of justice that is composed of organizational procedures, outcomes, and interpersonal interactions.
“Occupational Safety and Health Administration”"
One of two federal agencies established to maintain and enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act; plays a regulatory role in terms of establishing and enforcing health and safety standards.
Output component
Component that receives information from a human or computer and converts that information to action.
Participative behavior
Behavior identified in the Michigan Leadership Studies; allows subordinates more participation in decision making and encourages more two-way communication.
Path-goal (leadership) theory
Leadership theory proposed by House and his colleagues that includes both the characteristics of the subordinate and the characteristics of the situation. It assumes that the leader's responsibility is to show the subordinate the path to valued goals.
Perceptual motor approach
Approach to work design and redesign that is used to reduce errors or accidents through knowledge of perceptual motor skills and abilities.
Power approach
An approach to leadership that examines the types of power wielded by leaders.
Power motive
Motive to attain control or power that results from people learning that the exercise of such control over others or the environment is pleasing.
Problem focused coping
A type of coping directed at managing or altering a problem causing the stress.
Procedural Justice
Perceived fairness of the process (or procedure) by which rewards are distributed, decisions made, or evaluations conducted.
Psychological diversity
Refers to differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values; may also include functional, occupational, and educational backgrounds.
Psychological maturity
The self-confidence and self-respect of a subordinate.
Rational economic model
Model that accounts for the way people choose jobs that views the individual as an accountant who sums potential economic losses and gains in making the best choice.
Rational psychological model
Model that accounts for the way people choose jobs that infers a bookkeeper mentality on the part of the applicant, but also includes calculations that depend on psychological factors.
Relations oriented behavior
Type of behavior identified by University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader's activities; similar to consideration in the Ohio State model.
Stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome in which the body copes with the original source of stress, but resistance to other stressors is lowered.
Risky-shift phenomenon
The tendency for groups to make more risky decisions than individuals; related to the more general phenomenon of group polarization.
Role ambiguity
Stressor that occurs when employees lack clear knowledge of what behavior is expected in their job.
Role conflict
Stressor that occurs when demands from different sources are incompatible.
Role overload
Stressor that occurs when an individual is expected to fulfill too many roles at the same time.
Role stressor
Collective term for stressors resulting from the multiple task requirements or roles of employees.
Shared mental model
Organized way for team members to think about how the team will work; helps team members understand and predict the behavior of their teammates.
Social loafing
Reduced motivation and performance in groups that occurs when there is a diminished feeling of individual accountability or a reduced opportunity for evaluation of individual performance.
Social support
The comfort, assistance, or information an individual receives through formal or informal contacts with individuals or groups.
Social undermining
Behaviors such as a leader's criticism that indicate a dislike for another individual, as well as actions that tend to present an obstacle to that individual's goal-directed behavior.
Reaction or response to stressors.
Stress Hormone
Chemical (e.g., adrenalin, noradrenalin, epinephrine, or cortisol) released in the body when a person encounters stressful or demanding situations.
Physical or psychological demands to which an individual responds.
Surface acting
A type of emotional labor that consists of managing or faking one's expressions or emotions.
Task oriented behavior
Type of behavior identified by University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader's activities; similar to initiating structure from the Ohio State studies.
Time urgency
Type A behavior pattern subcomponent that refers to the feeling of being pressured by inadequate time.
Trait approach
Approach that attempts to show that leaders possessed certain characteristics that nonleaders did not.
Transactional leader(ship)
Process by which leaders show followers how they can meet their personal goals by adopting a particular behavior pattern. The leader develops social contracts with followers in which certain behaviors will be rewarded.
Transformational leader(ship)
Concept that describes the behavior of inspirational political leaders who transform their followers by appealing to nobler motives such as justice, morality, and peace.
A belief about how a person or an organization will act on some future occasion.
User centered design
Approach to human-computer interaction research that focuses on the user during system development.
User friendliness
Positive characteristic of machines, tools, and consumer products that are designed to be comfortable, easy to use, and compatible with human capacities and limitations.
Virtual team
Team that has widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal and linked through computers and other technology.
Work-family conflict
Conflict that occurs when workers experience conflict between the roles they fulfill at work and in their personal lives.
OSHA “Occupational Safety and Health Administration”
One of two federal agencies established to maintain and enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act; plays a regulatory role in terms of establishing and enforcing health and safety standards.
NIOSH “National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health”
One of two federal agencies established to maintain and enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act; responsible for conducting research on safety and work stress.