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419 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Message which tell us whether we are liked, respected, or controlled are called ____________ messages.
relational
A relational message that conveys attraction and interest is said to involve ____________.
immediacy
____________ may arise from intellectual or emotional closeness.
intimacy
Language that has two equally plausible meanings is termed ____________.
equivocal
Communication about communication is called ____________.
metacommunication
Equivocation refers to the completely ethical behavior of telling 'the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.'

a. True
b. False
False
Compared to perception checks and listening, self-disclosure carries far fewer risks for the communicator.

a. True
b. False
False
The Johari Window is a model that is useful for looking at the relative amount of open, closed, hidden and blind areas in a relationship

a. True
b. False
True
Hinting is a type of indirect behavior that can seek to get a desired response from the other and/or save the other from embarrassment.

a. True
b. False
True
5.
Men are more likely to see talk as a way to build intimacy; women are more likely to want to use shared activity to create intimacy.
a. True
b. False
False
relational message indicating liking
affinity
information that is not truthful, but thought to be harmless for the person being spoken to
altruistic lie
range of subjects and topics revealed to another
breadth (of self-disclosure)
a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed
content messages
interpersonal communication measured only by the number of people involved
contextually interpersonal communication
relational message of influence or power
control
the intensity or profoundness of topics revealed to another
depth (of self-disclosure)
model of communication that looks at stages of relationships
developmental model
model of relationship that emphasizes relational issues rather than stages
dialectical model (of relational maintenance)
conflicting desires or goals in a relationship
dialectical tensions
Which of these is a qualitative definition of interpersonal communication?

a. It involves two persons.
b. It occurs in dyads.
c. It involves each considering the other unique.
d. It is characterized as group or mass communication.
e. All of these are qualitative definitions.
It involves each considering the other unique
The existence of dialectical tensions in relationships tends to contribute toward

a. a tendency of absolute sequential movement through the stages of relationships.
b. a tendency for back and forth movement across stages.
c. a tendency to stagnate at one stage.
d. All of these are correct.
e. None of these are correct.
a tendency for back and forth movement across stages
Which is true of stages of relationships according to Knapp

a. Relationships always exist in many stages at a time.
b. Circumscribing does not involve total avoidance.
c. Stagnating is usually followed by bonding.
d. The stage after bonding is integrating.
e. The goal of all relational development is to get to the final stage.
Circumscribing does not involve total avoidance
Self-disclosure is often gauged by two factors:

a. depth and breadth.
b. high and low.
c. caring and respect.
d. significance and privacy.
e. stages and movement.
depth and breadth
You disclose to your parent the way you dumped your girl/boy friend in the hope that your parent will agree that you handled the situation well. This illustrates disclosure for which reason?

a. catharsis
b. self-clarification
c. self-validation
d. reciprocity
e. None of these are correct.
self-validation
In the film Breakfast Club, a group of teens are together for detention. One girl, Allison, seemingly self-discloses her bizarre sexual activity in an effort to get another teen, Claire, to disclose her sexual activity. Self-disclosing about oneself in an effort to get information from someone else may work because of which characteristic of self-disclosure?

a. Self-disclosure usually occurs in increments.
b. Self-disclosure usually is reciprocal.
c. Self-disclosure usually occurs in dyads.
d. All of these are correct.
e. None of these are correct.
Self-disclosure usually is reciprocal
Jourard wrote, '"when you permit yourself to be known, you expose yourself not only to a lover's balm, but also to a hater's bombs. When he knows you, he knows just where to plant them for maximum effect.' This statement relates to risks of

a. dialectical tensions.
b. equivocation.
c. self fulfilling prophecy.
d. self disclosure.
e. control.
self disclosure
Which is true of self-disclosure?

a. It is viewed essentially the same way around the world.
b. It rarely occurs incrementally.
c. It is strongly influenced by culture.
d. It usually occurs in large groups rather than dyads.
e. None of these are correct.
It is strongly influenced by culture
Which of these represents a type of dialectical tensions in relationships?

a. connection and autonomy
b. openness and privacy
c. predictability and novelty
d. All of these are correct.
e. None of these are correct.
All of these are correct
You say, 'SHUT THE DOOR!' in a loud, commanding, angry tone of voice or you say, 'Shut the door' with a softer voice, rising intonation to indicate a request. Which is true?

a. The content is essentially the same, but the relational message is different.
b. The content and relational messages are the same.
c. The relational message is essentially the same, but the content is different.
d. The content and relational messages are both different.
e. There is no relational message, but the content message is the same.
The content is essentially the same, but the relational message is different
A comment like, 'Let's talk about the way we talk to each other in front of my parents.' is most obviously a type of

a. metacommunication.
b. self-disclosure.
c. impersonal communication.
d. dialectical tension.
e. contextual definition.
metacommunication
Intimacy can best be defined as

a. physical.
b. intellectual.
c. emotional.
d. shared activities.
e. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct
Which of these is NOT one of the guidelines your text suggests for gauging appropriate self-disclosure?

a. Is the disclosure as in-depth as you can make it?
b. Is the risk of disclosing reasonable?
c. Is the other person important to you?
d. Is the disclosure relevant?
e. Is the disclosure understandable?
Is the disclosure as in-depth as you can make it?
The Johari Window is

a. a model of metacommunication.
b. a model of self-disclosure.
c. a model of relational stages.
d. a model of contextual communication.
e. None of these are correct.
a model of self-disclosure
15.
A Johari Window of someone who shares a lot of him-or herself with another and knows another well would be described like this:
a. 4 equal-sided quadrants
b. larger upper left quadrant
c. larger lower right quadrant
d. larger lower left quadrant
e. larger upper right quadrant
larger upper left quadrant
The degree to which people like or appreciate one another. As with all relational messages, _____ is usually expressed nonverbally.
affinity
Deception intended to be unmalicious, or even helpful, to the person to whom it is told.
altruistic lies
The range of topics about which an individual discloses. See also Depth.
breadth (of self-disclosure)
A message that communicates information about the subject being discussed.
content message
Any communication that occurs between two individuals.
contextually interpersonal communication
The social need to influence others.
control
The level of personal information a person reveals on a particular topic.
depth (of self-disclosure)
These models propose that the nature of communication is different in various stages of interpersonal relationships.
developmental models (of relational maintenance)
A model claiming that, throughout their lifetime, people in virtually all interpersonal relationships must deal with equally important, simultaneous, and opposing forces such as connection and autonomy, predictability and novelty, and openness versus privacy.
dialectical model (of relational maintenance)
Inherent conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously.
dialectical tensions
Language with more than one likely interpretation.
equivocal language
The degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others. As with all relational messages, immediacy is usually expressed nonverbally.
immediacy
A state of closeness between two (or sometimes more) people. _____ can be manifested in several ways: physically, intellectually, emotionally, and via shared activities.
Intimacy
A model that describes the relationship between self-disclosure and self-awareness.
Johari Window
Messages (usually relational) that refer to other messages; communication about communication.
metacommunication
Interaction in which people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved. Contrasted with impersonal communication.
qualitatively interpersonal communication
A message that expresses the social relationship between two or more individuals.
relational messages
The degree to which we hold others in esteem.
respect
The process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others.
self-disclosure
A model describing how intimacy can be achieved via the breadth and depth of selfdisclosure.
social penetration model
Which type of gender related self-disclosure tends to produce the greatest amount and depth of information exchanged?

female to female
male to female
male to male
none of the above
female to female
All of the following are qualities of intimacy EXCEPT:

Physiological
Physical
Intellectual
Emotional
Physiological
According to Altman and Taylor, the degree of intimacy in a relationship depends on the:

depth of information shared
breadth of information shared
depth and breadth of information shared
The nature of the information shared does not affect intimacy.
depth and breadth of information shared
is the amount of influence communicators seek.

Affinity
Respect
Immediacy
Control
Control
Which of the following is NOT one of the guidelines for self-disclosure:

Is the other person important to you?
Will the effect be constructive?
Will the self-disclosure increase your power?
Is the disclosure reciprocated?
Will the self-disclosure increase your power?
occurs when people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved.

Qualitatively impersonal communication
Qualitatively interpersonal communication
Quantitatively interpersonal communication
Quantitatively impersonal communication
Qualitatively interpersonal communication
Which culture expects more intimacy from their friendships?

Hispanic
Japanese
American
British
American
A de-escalatory conflict spiral

refers to a positive, nondestructive climate.
involves intense fights.
refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
produces greater involvement in the relationship.
none of the above
refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
is the degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem.

Affinity
Respect
Immediacy
Control
Respect
Patrice is giving a speech in front of her class. She keeps shifting nervously back and forth. Patrice is not aware of her shifting but her classmates are. According to Johari’s Window, which window or area would this fall under?

the open area
the hidden area
the blind area
the unknown area
the blind area
Recent research shows that women often build friendships through shared positive feelings, whereas men often build friendships through:

metacommunication
catharsis
impression management
shared activities
shared activities
If you tell a friend you don’t have any money to lend him when in reality you do, you’re demonstrating which of the “reasons for lying?”

presenting a competent image
increasing social desirability
protecting resources
acquiring resources
protecting resources
Which is NOT true of assertive communication?

It expresses feelings clearly and directly.
It does not judge or dictate to others.
It treats others with respect and dignity.
It helps communicators maintain better feelings about themselves.
It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
A person from a low-context culture

will likely hint at a problem, rather than come right out and speak of it.
will usually speak directly and assertively.
will usually not say "no" right to another person's request.
will not risk embarrassing the other person by direct talk.
none of the above reflect a low-context cultural stance.
will usually speak directly and assertively.
Neutrality, as used by Gibb, is closest to

mean-spirited.
unplanned.
kind.
indifferent.
fair.
indifferent.
Your partner tells you, “You look nice in that outfit.” The implication that he or she likes you and is proud of the way you look is the ______ of the message.

content
relational dimension
dialectical intensifier
equivocation
?
content
Spontaneity, as used by Gibb, is closest to

spur-of-the-moment.
unplanned.
honesty.
uncaring.
fair.
honesty.
Which of these is NOT a confirming response?

praise
compliment
pseudolistening
acknowledging
all of the above
pseudolistening
The conflict resolution method and assertive message skills taught in this chapter would work well when communicating

in Asian cultures
among Latin Americans
in predominantly Euroamerican work environments
all of the above
none of the above
in predominantly Euroamerican work environments
Susan needs to be at class from 6-9 pm. Demetri needs to be at a meeting from 6:30-8:30. They have only one car. If Demetri drops Susan off at class and picks her up, so both get to be where they need to be, and it works better for Susan not to have to park in a student parking lot far from the class, this solution could be called

win-win.
win-lose.
compromise.
lose-lose.
none of the above
win-win.
Practicing the communication behaviors Gibb labels supportive, rather than those labeled defensive

increases the chance of a constructive relationship.
increases the chance of more positive relationship if it is already positive, but decreases the chances of a positive relationship if it is already defensive.
increases the chances of you feeling better about yourself with regard to this relationship.
both b and c
both a and c
both a and c
Crazymaking is synonymous with

assertion.
nonassertion.
indirect communication.
passive aggression.
direct aggression.
passive aggression.
According to Richard Conville, relationships constantly change, evolving as a cycle in which partners move through a series of stages, returning to ones they previously encountered. Which of the following is the correct cycle of stages?

disintegration, resynthesis, alienation, security
security, alienation, disintegration, resynthesis
alienation, security, resynthesis, disintegration
security, disintegration, alienation, resynthesis
security, disintegration, alienation, resynthesis
Guiltmakers, jokers, trivial tyrannizers, and withholders are all engaged in behaviors called

assertion.
nonassertion.
crazymaking.
indirect communication.
direct aggression.
crazymaking.
Which of the following is an example of metacommunication?

“I hate it when you yell at me.”
“Let’s go to the movies.”
“Please bring me a paper.”
“Stop doing that!”
“I hate it when you yell at me.”
describes the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others.

Affinity
Respect
Immediacy
Control
Affinity
The characteristic of the relationship development model that states movement is always to a new place refers to the concept of communication as:

dynamic
fulfilling
irreversible
manageable
irreversible
When using an assertive message, the text stresses that you

put the message in the order given in the text.
put intentions first so you're not seen as manipulative.
choose the best order for your particular situation and goal.
keep each element in a separate sentence.
c and d
choose the best order for your particular situation and goal.
Asif was having difficulty conversing with Janie in person. He found that making contact with her via the Internet helpful in starting a conversation with her. According to the developmental model, which stage is Asif at?

initiating stage
intensifying stage
integrating stage
bonding stage
initiating stage
In the developmental model, which stage does the conversation develop as people get acquainted by making “small talk?”

initiating stage
experimenting stage
intensifying stage
integrating stage
initiating stage
All of the following are strategies for managing dialectical tensions EXCEPT:

Admittance
Denial
Segmentation
Alternation
Denial
All of the following are characteristics of effective self-disclosure EXCEPT:

Self-disclosure is influenced by culture
Self-disclosure usually occurs in dyads
Self-disclosure occurs at once
Self-disclosure is usually symmetrical
Self-disclosure occurs at once
Which of these is NOT typical of a win-lose style?

courts awarding sole custody to one parent, when both want custody of a child.
the World Series or Super Bowl
the World Series or Super Bowl
job sharing/flex time
all indicate a win-lose style
all indicate a win-lose style
Most theorists believe that gender differences in conflict style stem from

biology/heredity.
parental influence.
school and society.
socialization.
all but a
all but a
is the degree to which people like or appreciate one another.

Affinity
Respect
Immediacy
Control
Affinity
Accommodation and avoidance are both forms of

assertion.
nonassertion.
crazymaking.
passive aggression.
direct aggression.
nonassertion.
has two or more equally plausible meanings.

Equivocal language
Denotative language
Altruistic language
Ambiguous language
Equivocal language
_____ to _____ relationships have the highest disclosure rate.

Male to male
Male to female
Female to female
Female to male
Female to female
In which of the following countries is social harmony valued over truthfulness?

America
Germany
Japan
Great Britain
Japan
_____ is the process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not be normally known by others.

Self discovery
Self disclosure
Self dialect
Self analysis
Self disclosure
A Direct expression of the sender's needs, thoughts, or feelings, delivered in a way that does not attack the receiver's dignity.
assertion
Messages that dogmatically imply that the speaker's position is correct and that the other person's ideas are not worth considering. Likely to generate a defensive response.
certainty
The emotional tone of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive.
communication climate
An approach to conflict resolution in which both parties attain at least part of what they seek through self-sacrifice.
compromise
A response that conveys valuing, caring, and/or respecting another person.
confirming response
An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.
conflict
Messages in which the sender tries to impose some sort of outcome on the receiver, usually resulting in a defensive reaction.
controlling communication
Passive-aggressive messages sent in indirect ways that frustrate and confuse the recipient.
crazymaking
A communication spiral in which the parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdraw, and become less invested in the relationship.
deescalatory conflict spiral
Messages that describe the speaker's position without evaluating others. Synonymous with 'I' language.
descriptive communication
An expression of the sender's thoughts or feelings or both that attacks the position and dignity of the receiver.
direct aggression
A message that expresses a lack of caring or respect for another person.
disconfirming response
The ability to project oneself into another person's point of view, so as to experience the other's thoughts and feelings.
empathy
A type of supportive communication suggesting that the sender regards the receiver as worthy of respect.
equality
A reciprocal pattern of communication in which messages, either confirming or disconfirming, between two or more communicators reinforce one another.
escalatory spiral
Messages in which the sender judges the receiver in some way, usually resulting in a defensive response.
evaluative communication
Six sets of contrasting styles of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Each set describes a communication style that is likely to arouse defensiveness and a contrasting style that is likely to prevent or reduce it. Developed by Jack Gibb.
Gibb categories
Language that describes the speaker's position without evaluating others. Synonymous with Descriptive communication.
'I' language
Persuasion that disguises or deemphasizes the speaker's persuasive goal.
indirect persuasion
An approach to conflict resolution in which neither party achieves its goals.
lose/lose problem solving
A defense-arousing behavior in which the sender expresses indifference toward a receiver.
neutrality
The inability or unwillingness to express one's thoughts or feelings when necessary.
nonassertion
An indirect expression of aggression, delivered in a way that allows the sender to maintain a facade of kindness.
passive aggression
A supportive style of communication in which the communicators focus on working together to solve their problems instead of trying to impose their own solutions on one another.
problem orientation
A supportive style of communication in which the sender expresses a willingness to consider the other person's position.
provisionalism
Reciprocal communication pattern in which each person's message reinforces the other's.
spiral
Supportive communication behavior in which the sender expresses a message without any attempt to manipulate the receiver.
spontaneity
A defense-arousing style of communication in which the sender tries to manipulate or trick a receiver; also, the general term for any type of plan, as in the plan for a persuasive speech.
strategy
A defense-arousing style of communication in which the sender states or implies that the receiver is inferior.
superiority
An approach to conflict resolution in which one party reaches its goal at the expense of the other.
win/lose problem solving
An approach to conflict resolution in which the parties work together to satisfy all their goals.
win/win problem solving
Language that judges another person, increasing the likelihood of a defensive reaction.
'you' language
Communication climate is determined by the degree to which people feel they are ____________.
valued
____________ is the most distinguishing characteristic of win-lose problem solving.
power
In order to frame a conflict in such a way that a win-win solution is likely, it is necessary to think in terms of the ____________ of each person.
needs
"The worst sin toward our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of inhumanity." This quotation by Shaw is closest to the Gibb category of ____________.
neutrality
In the age of e-mail, supercomputer power on the desktop, the Internet, and the raucous global village, attentiveness " a token of human kindness " is the greatest gift we can give someone." - Tom Peters, The Pursuit of WOW! This quotation is closest to what Gibb describes as ____________.
empathy
direct expression of needs, thoughts or feelings
assertive
messages that dogmatically imply that one's own position is correct and that the other's ideas are not worth considering
certainty
the emotional tone of a relationship
communication climate
an approach to conflict resolution in which both parties attain part of what they want and give up part of what they want
compromise
a general category of responses that express caring and respect
confirming response
an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in reaching their goals
conflict
message in which sender tries to impose some sort of outcome on the receiver
controlling message
passive aggressive messages sent in indirect ways that frustrate and confuse the recipient
crazymaking
a communication spiral in which the parties become less interdependent and less invested in the relationship
de-escalatory conflict spiral
messages that give an account of a speaker's position without evaluating others
descriptive communication
Which of these is NOT a confirming response?

a. praise
b. compliment
c. pseudolistening
d. acknowledging
e. All of these are correct.
pseudolistening.
A de-escalatory conflict spiral

a. refers to a positive, nondestructive climate.
b. involves intense fights.
c. refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
d. produces greater involvement in the relationship.
e. None of these are correct.
refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
Spontaneity, as used by Gibb, is closest to

a. spur-of-the-moment.
b. unplanned.
c. honesty.
d. uncaring.
e. fair.
honesty.
Practicing the communication behaviors Gibb labels supportive, rather than those labeled defensive

a. increases the chance of a constructive relationship.
b. increases the chance of more positive relationship if it is already positive, but decreases the chances of a positive relationship if it is already defensive.
c. increases the chances of you feeling better about yourself with regard to this relationship.
d. both b and c
e. both a and c
both a and c.
Neutrality, as used by Gibb, is closest to

a. mean-spirited.
b. unplanned.
c. kind.
d. indifferent.
e. fair.
indifferent.
Accommodation and avoidance are both forms of

a. assertion.
b. nonassertion.
c. crazymaking.
d. passive aggression.
e. direct aggression.
nonassertion.
Crazymaking is synonymous with

a. assertion.
b. nonassertion.
c. indirect communication.
d. passive aggression.
e. direct aggression.
passive aggression.
Guiltmakers, jokers, trivial tyrannizers, and withholders are all engaged in behaviors called

a. assertion.
b. nonassertion.
c. crazymaking.
d. indirect communication.
e. direct aggression.
crazymaking.
Which is NOT true of assertive communication?

a. It expresses feelings clearly and directly.
b. It does not judge or dictate to others.
c. It treats others with respect and dignity.
d. It helps communicators maintain better feelings about themselves.
e. It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
When using an assertive message, the text stresses that you

a. put the message in the order given in the text.
b. put intentions first so you're not seen as manipulative.
c. choose the best order for your particular situation and goal.
d. keep each element in a separate sentence.
e. c and d
choose the best order for your particular situation and goal.
Most theorists believe that gender differences in conflict style stem from

a. biology/heredity.
b. parental influence.
c. school and society.
d. socialization.
e. all but a
socialization.
The conflict resolution method and assertive message skills taught in this

a. in Asian cultures.
b. among Latin Americans.
c. in predominantly Euroamerican work environments.
d. All of these are correct.
e. None of these are correct.
in predominantly Euroamerican work environments.
Which of these is NOT typical of a win-lose style?

a. courts awarding sole custody to one parent, when both want custody of a child.
b. the World Series or Super Bowl
c. political elections
d. job sharing-flex time
e. all indicate a win-lose style
job sharing-flex time.
Susan needs to be at class from 6-9 pm. Demetri needs to be at a meeting from 6:30-8:30. They have only one car. If Demetri drops Susan off at class and picks her up, so both get to be where they need to be, and it works better for Susan not to have to park in a student parking lot far from the class, this solution could be called

a. win-win.
b. win-lose.
c. compromise.
d. lose-lose.
e. None of these are correct.
win-win.
A person from a low-context culture

a. will likely hint at a problem, rather than come right out and speak of it.
b. will usually speak directly and assertively.
c. will usually not say 'no' right to another person's request.
d. will not risk embarrassing the other person by direct talk.
e. None of the above reflects a low-context cultural stance.
will usually speak directly and assertively.
In order for 'expressed struggle' to exist, the struggle must be verbalized.

a. True
b. False
False.
A communication climate is determined by the amount of talk that exists in a relationship.

a. True
b. False
False.
Conflict exists when there is expressed struggle, interdependence, perceived incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference with goals.

a. True
b. False
True.
While culture and gender influence speech patterns, researchers have not found any gender or culture differences with regard to how persons view and handle conflict.

a. True
b. False
False.
Win-win is the most widely used method of conflict resolution in our society.

a. True
b. False
False.
Cynthia states to John, “I don’t care what you want for dinner! I want Mexican food tonight!” This is an example of what type of message?

controlling message
descriptive message
evaluative message
problem orientation message
?( This should be correct)
controlling message
The text describes the need for providing “consequence statements” when delivering assertive messages. If Marco says to Darma, “I’m angry because you didn’t tell me about the annual report deadline. Now my boss is irritated with me for turning it in late.” Which part of Marco’s statement illustrates the consequence statement?

“I’m angry...”
“...you didn’t tell me about the deadline...”
“Now my boss is irritated with me...”
none of the above
“Now my boss is irritated with me...”
is the distinguishing characteristic in win-lose problem solving.

Struggle
Collaboration
Conflict
Power
Power
A nation that gains a military victory at the cost of thousands of lives is an example of:

compromise problem solving
lose-lose problem solving
win-lose problem solving
win-win problem solving
lose-lose problem solving
Intention statements can communicate all of the following kinds of messages EXCEPT

where you stand on an issue
descriptions of how you plan to act in the future
requests of others
what happens to others
what happens to others
is the inability or unwillingness to express thoughts or feelings in a conflict.

Direct aggression
Nonassertion
Passive aggression
Indirect communication
Nonassertion
Lee was having a conflict with a colleague at work. He tried to gain control by making her feel responsible for changing and accommodating in order to suit him better, by making little statements such as, “Well, I will do this job task, but it’s really your place to do it.” This is an example of:

direct aggression
indirect communication
passive aggression
nonassertion
passive aggression
When conflict exists in an interpersonal relationship and you ignore it, you are exhibiting:

indirect aggression
assertion
self-sufficiency
nonassertive behavior
nonassertive behavior
According to the Gibb categories, _____ _____ is often described as “You Language.”

evaluative language
control language
certainty language
superiority language
evaluative language
Practicing the communication behaviors Gibb labels supportive, rather than those labeled defensive

increases the chance of a constructive relationship.
increases the chance of more positive relationship if it is already positive, but decreases the chances of a positive relationship if it is already defensive.
increases the chances of you feeling better about yourself with regard to this relationship.
both b and c
both a and c
both a and c
According to Gibb, all of the following can create a defensive climate EXCEPT:

neutrality
equality
superiority
strategy
equality
All of the following is true about conflict EXCEPT:

There does not have to be expressed struggle
There does not have to be perceived compatible goals
There are perceived scarce rewards
There is a sense of interdependence
There does not have to be expressed struggle
A de-escalatory conflict spiral

refers to a positive, nondestructive climate.
involves intense fights.
refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
produces greater involvement in the relationship.
none of the above
refers to less involvement and greater withdrawal.
All of the following are the positive levels of confirming communication EXCEPT:

recognition
acknowledgement
endorsement
inattention
inattention
In _____ orientation, communicators focus on finding a solution that satisfies both their needs and those of the others involved.

spiral
problem
control
conflict
problem
“You asked me to tell you what I really thought about your idea, and then when I gave it to you, you told me I was too critical.” This is an example of:

behavioral description
a description of your feelings
a description of the consequences
your interpretation of the other person’s behavior
your interpretation of the other person’s behavior
_____ is displaying verbal or nonverbal clues that minimize interest, closeness or availability.

Discounting
Deception
Nonimmediacy
Restraint
Nonimmediacy
According to the Gibb categories, _____ communication focuses on the speaker’s thoughts and feelings instead of judging the listener.

evaluative
certainty
descriptive
neutral
descriptive
Yelling “Shut up!” or “Get it yourself!” is an example of:

direct aggression
indirect communication
passive aggression
nonassertion
direct aggression
Neutrality, as used by Gibb, is closest to

mean-spirited.
unplanned.
kind.
indifferent.
fair.
indifferent.
Crazymaking is synonymous with

assertion.
nonassertion.
indirect communication.
passive aggression.
direct aggression.
passive aggression.
Susan needs to be at class from 6-9 pm. Demetri needs to be at a meeting from 6:30-8:30. They have only one car. If Demetri drops Susan off at class and picks her up, so both get to be where they need to be, and it works better for Susan not to have to park in a student parking lot far from the class, this solution could be called

win-win.
win-lose.
compromise.
lose-lose.
none of the above
win-win.
Most theorists believe that gender differences in conflict style stem from

biology/heredity.
parental influence.
school and society.
socialization.
all but a
all but a
The conflict resolution method and assertive message skills taught in this chapter would work well when communicating

in Asian cultures
among Latin Americans
in predominantly Euroamerican work environments
all of the above
none of the above
in predominantly Euroamerican work environments
All of the following are steps in negotiating a solution EXCEPT:

Generate a number of possible solutions
Evaluate the alternative solutions
Identify and define the solution
Decide on the best solution
?
Decide on the best solution
All of the following are distancing tactics EXCEPT:

humoring
endorsement
deception
discounting
endorsement
Which is NOT true of assertive communication?

It expresses feelings clearly and directly.
It does not judge or dictate to others.
It treats others with respect and dignity.
It helps communicators maintain better feelings about themselves.
It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
It ensures communicators can always get what they want.
According to Gibb, spontaneity can also be termed as:

honesty
strategy
neutrality
indifference
honesty
A person from a low-context culture

will likely hint at a problem, rather than come right out and speak of it.
will usually speak directly and assertively.
will usually not say "no" right to another person's request.
will not risk embarrassing the other person by direct talk.
none of the above reflect a low-context cultural stance.
will usually speak directly and assertively.
Which of these is NOT a confirming response?

praise
compliment
pseudolistening
acknowledging
all of the above
pseudolistening
Descriptive communication is characterized by:

evaluation
its disconfirming effect
“I” messages
“You” messages
“I” messages
Accommodation and avoidance are both forms of

assertion.
nonassertion.
crazymaking.
passive aggression.
direct aggression.
nonassertion.
Spontaneity, as used by Gibb, is closest to

spur-of-the-moment.
unplanned.
honesty.
uncaring.
fair.
honesty.
Which of these is NOT typical of a win-lose style?

courts awarding sole custody to one parent, when both want custody of a child.
the World Series or Super Bowl
the World Series or Super Bowl
job sharing/flex time
all indicate a win-lose style
?
all indicate a win-lose style
When using an assertive message, the text stresses that you

put the message in the order given in the text.
put intentions first so you're not seen as manipulative.
choose the best order for your particular situation and goal.
keep each element in a separate sentence.
c and d
?
c and d
All of the following are parts to an assertive message EXCEPT:

a behavioral description
the person’s interpretation of your behavior
a description of your feelings
a description of the consequences
?
a description of your feelings
All of the following are steps in win-win problem solving EXCEPT:

identify their problem and met needs
make a date to discuss
describe your problem and needs
your partner checks back to clarify what you have said
identify their problem and met needs
Guiltmakers, jokers, trivial tyrannizers, and withholders are all engaged in behaviors called

assertion.
nonassertion.
crazymaking.
indirect communication.
direct aggression.
crazymaking.
refers to the emotional tone of a relationship.

Communication climate
Relational component
Emotional climate
Interpersonal component
Communication climate
Which of the following is a difference between males’ behavior in mixed-sex groups and in all-male groups? In mixed-sex groups, males:

use less volume.
are less aggressive.
listen more carefully.
ask more theoretical questions.
?
ask more theoretical questions.
A communication network in which all parties have equal access to one another.
all-channel network
A leadership style in which the designated leader uses legitimate, coercive, and reward power to dictate the group's actions.
authoritarian leadership style
A communication network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another.
chain network
The power to influence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences.
coercive power
A cultural orientation focusing on the welfare of the group as a whole, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success.
collectivistic orientation
Agreement between group members about a decision.
consensus
A style in which the nominal leader invites the group's participation in decision making.
democratic leadership style
Individual roles played by group members that inhibit the group's effective operation.
dysfunctional roles
The ability to influence others by virtue of one's perceived expertise on the subject in question.
expert power
A role assigned to a person by group members or an organization, usually to establish order.
formal role
Producers of mass messages, who determine what messages will be delivered to consumers, how those messages will be constructed, and when they will be delivered.
gatekeepers
A small collection of people whose members interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach goals.
group
Goals that a group collectively seeks to accomplish.
group goals
Individual goals that group members are unwilling to reveal.
hidden agenda
The motives of individual members that influence their behavior in groups.
individual goals
A cultural orientation focusing on the value and welfare of individual members, as opposed to a concern for the group as a whole.
individualistic orientation
Roles usually not explicitly recognized by a group that describe functions of group members, rather than their positions. Sometimes called 'functional roles.'
informal roles
The ability to influence others by virtue of the otherwise obscure information one possesses. See also Expert power.
information power
A style in which the designated leader gives up his or her formal role, transforming the group into a loose collection of individuals.
laissez-faire leadership style
A two-dimensional model that identifies leadership styles as combination of a concern for people and the task at hand.
Leadership Grid
The ability to influence a group owing to one's position in a group.
legitimate power
The person who is identified by title as the leader of a group.
nominal leader
Shared values, beliefs, behaviors, and procedures that govern a group's operation.
norms
The ability to influence others' thoughts and or actions.
power
The degree to which members are willing to accept a difference in power and status between members of a group.
power distance
Norms that describe rules for the group's operation.
procedural norms
The ability to influence others by virtue of the degree to which one is liked or respected.
referent power
The ability to influence others by the granting or promising of desirable consequences.
reward power
The patterns of behavior expected of group members.
roles
Explicit, officially stated guideline that governs group functions and member behavior.
rule
A theory that argues that the most effective leadership style varies according to leader-member relations, the nominal leader's power, and the task structure.
situational leadership
Group norms that govern the way members relate to one another. See also Task norms.
social norms
Individual goals that involve affiliation, influence, and esteem of others.
social orientation
Emotional roles concerned with maintaining smooth personal relationships among group members. Also termed Maintenance functions.
social roles
Graphic representation of the interaction patterns in a group.
sociogram
Group norms that govern the way members handle the job at hand.
task norms
Procedures to get the job done. The most obvious type of individual motive for belonging to a group.
task orientation
Roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem.
task roles
The belief that it is possible to identify leaders by personal traits, such as intelligence, appearance, or sociability.
trait theories of leadership
The cultural tendency to seek stability and honor tradition instead of welcoming risk, uncertainty, and change.
uncertainty avoidance
A communication pattern in which one person acts as a clearinghouse, receiving and relaying messages to all other members.
wheel network
Officially recognized and labeled behaviors, such as secretary, are known as ____________.
formal roles
Tasks or behaviors clearly operating but rarely acknowledged are called ____________.
informal roles
Important reasons for group membership, but reasons not always stated or recognized by members are called ____________.
social goals
An individual goal that is not made known to or shared with a group is a ____________.
hidden agenda
Unwritten rules that operate in groups are called ____________.
norms
network in which all parties have equal access to one another
all-channel network
network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another
chain network
cultural orientation focusing on the group as a whole, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success
collectivistic orientation
decision-making method in which group members discuss an issue until they reach agreement
consensus
individual roles of group members that inhibit the group's effectiveness
dysfunctional roles
Officially recognized and labeled behaviors that are expected of persons in a group, such as secretary and manager
formal roles
person through whom information flows
gatekeeper
small collection of individuals who interact over time to reach goals
group
objectives that a group collectively seeks to accomplish
group goals
group which seeks no goal of its own, but to promote individual members' personal development
growth group
Which is an essential part of the definition of a group?

a. individuals who interact verbally
b. individuals who interact face-to-face
c. individuals who interact over time.
d. individuals who number at least five.
e. All of these are correct.
individuals who interact over time.
An investment group in which members join to understand and practice investing would be primarily a group.

a. learning
b. growth
c. problem-solving
d. social
e. None of these are correct.
learning.
Group norms are best identified by

a. observing the habits of members.
b. reading the by-laws.
c. noting how members are punished for behaviors.
d. both a and b
e. both a and c
both a and c.
A problem that occurs in groups with regard to roles is

a. an important informal role is not filled.
b. several people vie for a particular role.
c. a member(s) acts out a certain role when the situation doesn't require it.
d. All of these can be problems in groups.
e. None of these is a problem with regard to groups and roles.
All of these can be problems in groups.
You can be a more valuable group member if you

a. look for missing roles; figure out what's not being done.
b. fill or encourage others to fill missing roles.
c. avoid role fixation when it is not helpful or needed.
d. avoid dysfunctional roles.
e. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
One way to visually see who speaks to whom and how often is to construct a

a. sociogram.
b. role research diagram.
c. chain network.
d. collectivistic culture.
e. decision-making paradigm.
sociogram.
Which network is described in this scenario? Jane stays at her desk and by her phone most of the workday. When others leave, they usually tell her. When Marcy is trying to reach Juan, but Juan is away from his desk, Marcy asks Jane to give Juan a message when he returns. Since Jane can see the other desks and is frequently asked to relay messages, she is performing the role of

a. chain network.
b. sociogram.
c. gatekeeper.
d. collectivistic orientation.
e. uncertainty avoider.
gatekeeper.
Which network is represented in the following diagram? Driver---Dispatcher---Terminal manager----General manager

a. wheel
b. chain
c. all-channel
d. y-channel
e. None of these are correct.
chain.
In a wheel network, the gatekeeper

a. may distort messages to the detriment of the group.
b. may facilitate communication between members with strained relations.
c. is usually easily available and accessible to all members.
d. Only b and c are correct.
e. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
The major drawback of decision by consensus is

a. it's undemocratic.
b. full participation in decision-making decreases commitment to support the decision.
c. it is impossible to use expert opinion.
d. it takes a great deal of time.
e. members don't get as involved emotionally as with other methods.
it takes a great deal of time.
A group decision by minority often refers to a decision by

a. a group of rabble rousers.
b. committee.
c. a small group of external experts.
d. autocratic leaders.
e. None of these are correct.
committee.
The best decision-making method depends on

a. the culture.
b. the importance of the decision.
c. the amount of time available.
d. the type of decision.
e. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Usually members of individualistic cultures

a. produce and reward 'stars.'
b. find consensus easy to achieve.
c. see their primary loyalty to groups.
d. are found in Asian and Latin American cultures.
e. are indirect.
produce and reward 'stars.'
U.S. cultures tend to

a. have a low power distance.
b. have high uncertainty avoidance.
c. be collectivistic.
d. have high social orientation.
e. None of these are correct.
have a low power distance.
In a society with high power distance

a. leaders are not readily accepted and respected.
b. group members are not likely to feel they need a leader.
c. group members expect leaders to act like equals to all.
d. All of these are correct.
e. None of these are correct.
None of these are correct.
Any time you are surrounded by other people, you are part of at least one group.

a. True
b. False
False
Majority rule decisions are usually of higher quality than any other kind of decision.

a. True
b. False
False
A decision by consensus means a vote of 51 percent or more.

a. True
b. False
False
Gatekeepers serve a vital communication function in a wheel network.

a. True
b. False
True
Role fixation occurs when a person enacts the same role in groups whether or not it is a needed or functional for that context.

a. True
b. False
True
A method for creatively generating ideas in groups by minimizing criticism and encouraging a large quantity of ideas without regard to their workability or ownership by individual members.
brainstorming
A group discussion strategy used when the number of members is too large for effective discussion.
buzz group
The totality of forces that causes members to feel themselves part of a group and makes them want to remain in that group.
cohesiveness
A stage in problem-solving groups when members openly defend their positions and question those of others.
conflict stage
A stage in problem solving when the group moves from conflict toward a single solution.
emergence phase
Used in market research by sponsoring organizations to survey potential users or the public at large regarding a new product or idea.
focus group
A method of problem analysis that identifies the forces contributing to resolution of the problem and the forces that inhibit its resolution.
force field analysis
A discussion format in which audience members are invited to add their comments to those of the official discussants.
forum
A group's collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alternatives to its chosen decision.
groupthink
Decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate of complexity of material is too great to manage.
information overload
Decline in efficiency that occurs when there is a shortage of the information that is necessary to operate effectively.
information underload
Method for including the ideas of all group members in a problem-solving session.
nominal group technique
A stage in problem-solving groups when members become familiar with one another's position and tentatively volunteer their own.
orientation stage
A discussion format in which participants consider a topic more or less conversationally, without formal procedural rules. Panel discussions may be facilitated by a moderator.
panel discussion
A problem-solving method in which specific rules govern the way issues may be discussed and decisions made.
parliamentary procedure
Development of solutions with input by the people who will be affected.
participative decision making
Used to equalize participation in groups when the goal is to identify important issues or problems. Members first put ideas on cards, which are then compiled by a leader to generate a comprehensive statement of the issue or problem.
problem census
A stage in problem-solving groups when members endorse the decision they have made.
reinforcement stage
A discussion format in which participants divide the topic in a manner that allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption.
symposium
Listing all of the items that would help and that would hinder a group in solving a problem is called ____________.
force field analysis
A technique that works to get many people's ideas out in group problem-solving is called ____________.
nominal group technique
Excessive cohesiveness that often results in poor decision-making is called ____________.
groupthink
Group problem-solving works best if the members have tasks that are ____________.
interdependent
In most groups, ____________ is conferred by the group and distributed among its members.
power
In most cases, groups produce more and higher quality solutions to problems than do individuals working alone.

a. True
b. False
True
In the emergence stage of problem solving, groups resolve their disagreements and solve their problem.

a. True
b. False
True
Groupthink refers to the ideal level of cohesion.

a. True
b. False
False
Participative decision-making often produces members less likely to accept solutions and less committed to the decision than non-participative decision-making.

a. True
b. False
False
If there is more than one decision or solution, it is best not to have a group tackle the problem; groups do better with problems that have a single answer.

a. True
b. False
False
creative way of generating a large number of ideas without criticism or ownership
brainstorming
subgroups (of a group too large for effective discussion) that simultaneously discuss an issue.
buzz groups
forces that cause members to feel part of a group and desire to remain in the group
cohesiveness
A group stage in which members defend their positions and criticize other positions
conflict stage
A group stage in which members move from conflict to solution
emergence stage
group formed to conduct market or other research
focus group
method of problem analysis that identifies the forces contributing to resolution of the problem and the forces that inhibit its resolution
force field analysis
discussion format in which audience members are invited to add their comments to those of official panelists
forum
group's striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alternatives
groupthink
decline in efficiency that occurs when the complexity of information is too great to manage
information overload
Groups are often effective in problem-solving because they exhibit all of these EXCEPT

a. greater resources.
b. greater accuracy.
c. greater commitment.
d. greater speed.
e. Groups have none of these advantages.
greater speed.
Which question should be asked when trying to decide whether to use a group or individual approach to problem solving?

a. Is the job beyond the capacity of one person?
b. Are the individual's tasks interdependent?
c. Is there more than one decision or solutions?
d. Is there potential for disagreement?
e. All of these are valid questions to ask when deciding whether to use a group or individual approach.
All of these are valid questions to ask when deciding whether to use a group or individual approach.
Which type of problem-solving format is likely to use Robert's Rules of Order?

a. parliamentary procedure
b. panel discussion
c. symposium
d. forum
e. Each of these typically follows Robert's Rules.
parliamentary procedure.
Which step is the first step in the structured problem-solving approach?

a. analyze the problem
b. develop creative solutions
c. implement the plan
d. identify the problem
e. evaluate the solutions
identify the problem.
Identifying specific tasks, determining necessary resources, defining individual responsibilities, and providing for emergencies are all part of which step of structured problem solving?

a. analyze the problem
b. develop creative solutions
c. implement the plan
d. identify the problem
e. evaluate the solutions
implement the plan.
Which of these is a probative question?

a. Should we buy Macs or IBMs?
b. What will we gain from new computer systems?
c. Will the computers be paid for with cash or purchase orders?
d. Resolved, that our company should purchase new computers.
e. All of these fall within the parameters of probative questions.
What will we gain from new computer systems?
Probative questions and force field analysis are part of which step?

a. analyze the problem
b. develop creative solutions
c. implement the plan
d. identify the problem
e. evaluate the solutions
analyze the problem.
Brainstorming guidelines include all of the following EXCEPT

a. no criticism.
b. encourage freewheeling.
c. state your opposition clearly.
d. seek quantity.
e. combine and piggyback.
state your opposition clearly.
The difference between nominal group technique and brainstorming is that

a. nominal groups allow members to work alone first.
b. brainstorming allows criticism, nominal group doesn't.
c. nominal groups seek quantity, brainstorming seeks quality.
d. brainstorming involves ranking ideas; nominal groups don't rank.
e. None of these is a difference.
nominal groups allow members to work alone first.
Evaluating progress and revising the group's approach are part of which step?

a. analyze the problem
b. develop creative solutions
c. implement the plan
d. follow up on the solution
e. evaluate the solutions
follow up on the solution.
Which is true of the reinforcement stage of group problem-solving?

a. Members take strong positions and defend them.
b. Members are reluctant to take a stand.
c. Members approach consensus and back off dogmatic positions.
d. Members find reasons to endorse and support the decision.
e. None of these describes the reinforcement stage.
Members find reasons to endorse and support the decision.
Comments such as, 'There are probably several ways we could approach this,' and 'I wonder what would happen if we tried a new computer system.' are typical of which stage?

a. orientation
b. conflict
c. emergence
d. reinforcement
e. These comments are typical of each stage.
orientation.
There may be a lot of in-fighting within an organization, but when a perceived outside threat confronts the organization, the result is often

a. organizational ineffectiveness.
b. increased cohesiveness.
c. decreased cohesiveness.
d. contradictory feelings toward group leaders.
e. None of these are correct.
increased cohesiveness.
Which of these is true of power?

a. Power is conferred by a group; it is not an individual possession.
b. Power is distributed among group members; many members have different kinds of power.
c. Power is usually a matter of degree, not an all or nothing proposition.
d. All of these are true.
e. None of these are true.
All of these are true.
You like getting invited to the boss's office often and getting to spend time sharing ideas with her. The fact that she can grant this time may represent a type of

a. coercive power.
b. reward power.
c. expert power.
d. referent power.
e. legitimate power.
reward power.
A sense of belonging and being liked by others are related to:

group task orientation
group social orientation
individual task orientation
individual social orientation
individual social orientation
Which network is described in this scenario? Jane stays at her desk and by her phone most of the workday. When others leave, they usually tell her. When Marcy is trying to reach Juan, but Juan is away from his desk, Marcy asks Jane to give Juan a message when he returns. Since Jane can see the other desks and is frequently asked to relay messages, she is performing the role of

chain network
sociogram
gatekeeper
collectivistic orientation
uncertainty avoider
gatekeeper
An all channel network, a wheel network, and a chain network are all examples of:

a matrix caliper
a total mode
a sociogram
a group regenerator
a sociogram
Which is an essential part of the definition of a group?

individuals who interact verbally
individuals who interact face-to-face
individuals who interact over time.
individuals who number at least five.
all of the above.
individuals who interact over time.
Advantage(s) of virtual groups include:

status is leveled or less important among members.
speed and ease of meeting.
reduced costs.
all of the above
none of the above
all of the above
___________________ govern the relationship of members to each other.

Social norms
Task norms
Formal norms
Procedural norms
Social norms
All of the following are countries considered to have a low uncertainty avoidance EXCEPT:

U.S.A
India
Japan
Singapore
Japan
Members of collectivistic cultures are more likely to:

tolerate conflict
be team players
use a solution-oriented approach
gain their identity from their accomplishments
be team players
___________________ focus on how the job itself should be handled.

Social norms
Task norms
Formal norms
Procedural norms
Task norms
Societies with low uncertainty avoidance

are willing to take risks.
accept change readily.
see conflict as natural.
all of the above
none of the above
all of the above
All of the following are examples of task roles EXCEPT:

initiator
information seeker
opinion seeker
gatekeeper
gatekeeper
Which of the following decision-making methods call for the greatest need of communication skill?

majority control
consensus
expert opinion
authority rule
consensus
An investment group in which members join to understand and practice investing would be primarily a group.

learning
growth
problem-solving
social
none of the above
?
growth
___________________ is the approach most often used by autocratic leaders.

Minority control
Expert opinion
Consensus
Authority rule
Authority rule
___________________ refers to the degree to which members are willing to accept a difference in power between members of a group.

Power influx
Power distance
Authority control
Power avoidance
Power distance
“Deserter,” “Dominator,” “Recognition Seeker,” and “Aggressor” are all examples of:

task roles
social roles
dysfunctional roles
all the above
dysfunctional roles
One way to visually see who speaks to whom and how often is to construct a/an

sociogram
role research diagram
chain network
collectivistic culture
decision-making paradigm
sociogram
Every Sunday evening Lana’s family hashes out their schedules, their conflicts, whose turn it is to handle which chores, and so on. This group best illustrates:

a problem-solving group
a dysfunctional group
a chain network
all the above
a problem-solving group
In a society with high power distance

leaders are not readily accepted and respected.
group members are not likely to feel they need a leader.
group members expect leaders to act like equals to all.
all of the above
none of the above
none of the above
___________________ outline how the group should operate.

Social norms
Task norms
Formal norms
Procedural norms
Procedural norms
Which network is represented in the following diagram?
Driver---Dispatcher---Terminal manager----General manager

wheel
chain
all-channel
y-channel
none of the above
chain
The major drawback of decision by consensus is

The major drawback of decision by consensus is
full participation in decision-making decreases commitment to support the decision.
it is impossible to use expert opinion.
it takes a great deal of time.
members don't get as involved emotionally as with other methods.
it takes a great deal of time.
All of the following countries are considered to be concerned more with high task orientation EXCEPT:

Portugal
Japan
Austria
Mexico
Portugal
U.S. cultures tend to

have a low power distance.
have high uncertainty avoidance.
be collectivistic.
have high social orientation.
none of the above
have a low power distance.
All of the following are factors that help form a group EXCEPT:

interaction
independence
time
size
size
___________________ is the most obvious type of individual motive for belonging to a group.

Task orientation
Group orientation
Social orientation
Goal orientation
Task orientation
Usually members of individualistic cultures

produce and reward "stars."
find consensus easy to achieve.
see their primary loyalty to groups.
are found in Asian and Latin American cultures.
are indirect.
produce and reward "stars."
___________________societies are characterized by a focus on making the team more competent through training and the use of up-to-date methods.

Task-oriented
Social-oriented
Short-term-oriented
Long-term-oriented
Task-oriented
A problem that occurs in groups with regard to roles is

an important informal role is not filled.
several people vie for a particular role.
a member(s) acts out a certain role when the situation doesn't require it.
all of the above can be problems in groups.
None of these is a problem with regard to groups and roles.
all of the above can be problems in groups.
A ___________________ reconciles disagreements, mediates differences, and reduces tensions by giving group members a chance to explore their differences.

conciliator
harmonizer
gatekeeper
feeling expresser
harmonizer
A committee deciding on the best candidate to hire for a position would be considered which type of group?

Growth group
Problem-solving group
Learning group
Social group
Problem-solving group
In a wheel network, the gatekeeper

may distort messages to the detriment of the group.
may facilitate communication between members with strained relations.
is usually easily available and accessible to all members.
both b and c
all of the above
all of the above
Rochelle is secretly resentful that the group did not choose her as their leader, but instead selected Joachim. As a result she is overly critical of the suggestions made by Joachim during their discussions. Rochelle’s behavior illustrates:

social role
hidden agenda
a virtual group
a chain network
hidden agenda
Which of the following are advantages of “virtual groups”?

meet whenever necessary, even if members are widely separated
fast and easy getting together
leveling of status differences
all of the above
all of the above
An all-channel communication network will be more efficient than a wheel network in:

providing the leader with more information than other members
solving simple, routine tasks
solving complex, ambiguous tasks
finding one member to serve as a clearinghouse for information
solving complex, ambiguous tasks
A bible study group would be best classified as which type of group?

Growth group
Problem-solving group
Learning group
Social group
Learning group
You can be a more valuable group member if you

look for missing roles; figure out what's not being done.
fill or encourage others to fill missing roles.
avoid role fixation when it is not helpful or needed.
avoid dysfunctional roles
all of the above
all of the above
The role of gatekeeper is most influential in the ___________________ network.

circular
all-channel
chain
wheel
wheel
A ___________________ is a communication pattern in which one person acts as a clearinghouse, receiving and relaying messages to all other members.

chain network
gate keeping network
wheel network
spiral network
wheel network
A group decision by minority often refers to a decision by

a group of rabble rousers.
committee.
a small group of external experts.
autocratic leaders.
none of the above
committee.
Group norms are best identified by

observing the habits of members
reading the by-laws
noting how members are punished for behaviors
both a and b
both a and c
both a and c
The best decision-making method depends on

the culture.
the importance of the decision.
the amount of time available.
the type of decision.
all of the above.
all of the above.
_____ leadership style relies on legitimate, coercive, and reward power to influence others.

Laissez-faire
Democratic
Authoritarian
Situational
Authoritarian
Which of the following is not part of the “develop creative solutions” phase of problem solving?

Encourage “freewheeling” ideas.
Develop a large number of ideas.
Combine two or more individual ideas.
Relate group goals to possible solutions.
Relate group goals to possible solutions.
Evaluating progress and revising the group's approach are part of which step?

analyze the problem
develop creative solutions
implement the plan
follow up on the solution
evaluate the solutions
follow up on the solution
According to the Nominal Group Technique, all of the following steps should be followed to enhance the brainstorming phase EXCEPT:

members work together to develop a list of possible solutions
in a round-robin fashion, each member lists one of the possible solutions
each member privately ranks his or her choice of the ideas in order
have a free discussion of the top ideas held
members work together to develop a list of possible solutions
All of the following are advantages to solving problems in groups EXCEPT:

They provide more accuracy
They provide more resources
They create a stronger sense of commitment
They solve problems faster
They solve problems faster
In a panel discussion the leader is called a (an):

moderator
organizer
manager
facilitator
moderator
According to the Leadership Grid, which type of management style is the best management style to strive for?

team management
country club management
impoverished management
authority obedience
team management
You like getting invited to the boss's office often and getting to spend time sharing ideas with her. The fact that she can grant this time may represent a type of

coercive power.
reward power.
expert power.
referent power.
legitimate power.
reward power.
All of the following are factors that increase the goal of cohesiveness EXCEPT:

Shared or compatible goals
Lack of perceived threat between members
Independence between members
Mutual perceived attractiveness and friendship
Independence between members
_____ power is also known as position power.

Nominal
Reward
Referent
Legitimate
Legitimate
Which of the following should be the first task of a problem-solving group?

define the problem
analyze the problem
decide upon all the group’s norms
offer solutions to the problem
define the problem
Which of these is a probative question?

Should we buy Macs or IBMs?
What will we gain from new computer systems?
Will the computers be paid for with cash or purchase orders?
Resolved, that our company should purchase new computers.
All of the above fall within the parameters of probative questions.
What will we gain from new computer systems?
Which of the following would NOT be included in the structured problem solving process?

the reflective thinking technique
the nominal group technique
the ideal-solution technique
none of the above
the ideal-solution technique
Which question should be asked when trying to decide whether to use a group or individual approach to problem solving?

Is the job beyond the capacity of one person?
Are the individual's tasks interdependent?
Is there more than one decision or solutions?
Is there potential for disagreement?
All of the above are valid questions to ask when deciding whether to use a group or individual approach.
All of the above are valid questions to ask when deciding whether to use a group or individual approach.
Probative questions and force field analysis are part of which step?

analyze the problem
develop creative solutions
implement the plan
identify the problem
evaluate the solutions
analyze the problem
Fisher’s four-stage group decision-making process shows that the stages of a problem-solving group are:

confusing
preplanned
linear
cyclical
cyclical
Which step is the first step in the structured problem-solving approach?

analyze the problem
develop creative solutions
implement the plan
identify the problem
evaluate the solutions
identify the problem
Which type of problem-solving format is likely to use Robert's Rules of Order?

parliamentary procedure
panel discussion
symposium
forum
Each of these typically follows Robert's Rules.
parliamentary procedure
The difference between nominal group technique and brainstorming is that

nominal groups allow members to work alone first.
brainstorming allows criticism, nominal group doesn't.
nominal groups seek quantity, brainstorming seeks quality.
brainstorming involves ranking ideas; nominal groups don't rank.
None of these is a difference.
nominal groups allow members to work alone first.
Identifying specific tasks, determining necessary resources, defining individual responsibilities, and providing for emergencies are all part of which step of structured problem solving?

analyze the problem
develop creative solutions
implement the plan
identify the problem
evaluate the solutions
implement the plan
DeShawn is the captain of the scholastic team. The team was at tournament when one of team members went into a seizure. Nyia was certified in first aid, so she became the leader of the group during this crisis. Even though DeShawn was the group leader, what type of power was Nyia exhibiting?

Referent power
Information power
Coercive power
Expert power
Expert power
Which of these is true of power?

Power is conferred by a group; it is not an individual possession.
Power is distributed among group members; many members have different kinds of power.
Power is usually a matter of degree, not an all or nothing proposition.
All of these are true.
None of these are true.
All of these are true.
The Leadership Grid looks at the relationship between a leader's concern for

referent and expert power issues.
democratic and authoritarian issues.
task and relational issues.
cohesiveness and interdependence.
none of the above
task and relational issues.
Which is true of the reinforcement stage of group problem-solving?

Members take strong positions and defend them.
Members are reluctant to take a stand.
Members approach consensus and back off dogmatic positions.
Members find reasons to endorse and support the decision.
None of these describes the reinforcement stage.
Members find reasons to endorse and support the decision.
Robert actually is enjoying his group project in speech class. Everyone seems to listen to everyone else, and they all take part in finding solutions to the problem they are working on. Robert is surprised at how committed he is to these solutions. His commitment demonstrates the principle of:

reactive decision making
proactive decision making
interdependent decision making
participative decision making
participative decision making
All of the following are steps to John Dewey’s “reflective thinking” model EXCEPT:

Identify the problem
Analyze the solution
Develop possible creative solutions through brainstorming
Evaluate solutions
Analyze the solution
Groups are often effective in problem-solving because they exhibit all of these EXCEPT

greater resources.
greater accuracy.
greater commitment.
greater speed.
Groups have none of the above advantages.
greater speed.
Leadership is often examined in terms of

trait analysis.
leadership style.
situational variables.
all of the above
none of the above
all of the above
According to the Leadership Grid, which type of management style has a very high concern for people and a very low concern for production?

team management
country club management
impoverished management
authority obedience
country club management
According to Dewey’s “reflective thinking” model, in the second step, analyzing the problem, you should do all of the following EXCEPT:

identify specific tasks
word the problem as a probative question
gather relevant information
identify impelling and restraining forces
identify specific tasks
A leadership style that is laid back and not very involved is

authoritarian.
democratic.
laissez-faire.
trait analysis.
none of the above
laissez-faire.
Comments such as, "There are probably several ways we could approach this," and "I wonder what would happen if we tried a new computer system." are typical of which stage?

orientation
conflict
emergence
reinforcement
These comments are typical of each stage.
orientation
All of the following are criteria of brainstorming EXCEPT:

freewheeling is encouraged
combination and improvement are desirable
criticism is forbidden
quality is better than quantity of ideas
quality is better than quantity of ideas
Group think occurs when:

there is little dissent
the group strives for unanimity
members do not voice ideas that deviate from the consensus
all of the above
all of the above
According to Fisher, in the ______ stage members approach the problem and one another tentatively.

conflict
orientation
emergence
orientation
In a _____ participants divide the topic in a manner that allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption.

focus group
panel discussion
symposium
buzz group
symposium
“Reflective thinking” refers to:

systematic problem solving
communication patterns
brainstorming
a leadership strategy
systematic problem solving
A _____ is used as a market research tool to enable sponsoring organizations to learn how potential users or the public at large regards a new product or idea.

focus group
buzz group
problem census
symposium
focus group
Information overload

contributes to the quality of group decisions by having more information.
can be detrimental to a group.
is less and less a problem for groups who gather research well.
is usually less paralyzing to a group than information underload.
is unheard of in today's information age.
can be detrimental to a group.
A _____ allows nonmembers to add their opinions to the group’s deliberations before the group makes a decision.

focus group
forum
panel discussion
symposium
forum
Fiedler’s theory of leadership that recommends a leader’s style should change with the circumstances is labeled:

emergent
situational
fluid
laissez-faire
situational
Fiedler’s theory of leadership that recommends a leader’s style should change with the circumstances is labeled:

emergent
situational
fluid
laissez-faire
situational
There may be a lot of in-fighting within an organization, but when a perceived outside threat confronts the organization, the result is often

organizational ineffectiveness.
increased cohesiveness.
decreased cohesiveness.
contradictory feelings toward group leaders.
none of the above
increased cohesiveness.
When your group has too much information it experiences:

information overload
information underload
lack of cohesion
group think
information overload
Brainstorming guidelines include all of the following EXCEPT

no criticism.
encourage freewheeling.
state your opposition clearly.
seek quantity.
combine and piggyback.
state your opposition clearly.