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33 Cards in this Set

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Sociological Imagination
Our paradigm; a way which we make sense of the world around us
"Strange in the familiar"
Reassessing the familiar; letting ourselves be surprised by seemingly 'normal' occurrences
What are the main reasons sociology emerged?
Industrialism, political changes, social changes, creation of cities
Who coined the term sociology? Discuss him/her.
Auguste Comte; Social physics, positivism
Theory
Asserting a reason for how/why things are a certain way.
Paradigm
How we view the world - ex: see differently from rose-colored glasses than bifocals
Describe the functionalist paradigm.
Different aspects of society work together to form an equilibrium; everything is a certain way for a reason; if something goes awry, minor changes will occur to regain equilibrium
Robert Merton
Manifest/latent functions of societal institutions
Social fact
Any external factor that can exert influence over an individual (i.e. social norms)
Anomie
Individual feeling of aimlessness/hopelessness when life feels unpredictable due to lack of norms/social direction
Conflict paradigm
Karl Marx; conflict is the source of social change; no harmony; all inequality and change; emphasis on power/coercion; change is normal
Deductive vs. Inductive inquiry
Deductive - taking theory, developing hypothesis, collecting data, confirmation/rejection of theory
Inductive: Begin with data, assess pattern, develop hypothesis, derive theory
(opposites of each other, like a wheel, intertwined)
Why do sociologists use systematic research?
Validity (measurement produces accurate results)
Reliability (measurement produces consistent results)
Spurious correlation
When you think A causes B but in reality, C causes both A and B
What are some ethical requirements when doing research?
Confidentiality, voluntary participation, lack of harm, informed consent, professional standards
Types of research questions
Empirical, Moral, Aesthetic, Interpretive
Examples of social patterns
Institutions, social class, culture
Structure
Social forces, institutions
Agency
Individual actions/responses
Questions sociologists ask
What are people doing here?
How are they related?
How are these relationships organized in institutions?
What are the collective ideas that move men and institutions?
Social Ecology
Human's behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments
Positivist Sociology
Social world described/predicted by certain describable relationships (related to social physics)
Social identity
Grand narrative of a person
Symbolic Interactionism
Micro-level theory; shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form basic motivations for people's actions
Feminist Theory
Emphasis on conflict and political reform; belief that sociology and society subordinate women
Double consciousness
Mechanism used by African-Americans to maintain two different social spheres
(1. as an ordinary person in society, 2. as a person being analyzed because of race)
Social construction
An entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and enforce its existence
Includes formal rules and informal norms
(ex: we use dollars for money, in reality it's just paper that we use as a form of exchange because it's green and has a special stamp)
Corporation
Legal entity unto itself that has legal personhood distinct from its members
Adam Smith
Father of Liberal Economics;
Money as agent of social change, positive thing in society
Georg Simmel
Money as depersonalization of exchange, less interactive society
Reflexivity
When doing research, analyzing the extent of the white-coat effect on results
Hawthorne Effect
Perform better because you're part of an experiment
(ex: try harder because you know you're being evaluated)
Demand Effects
When a research participant predicts/suspects the theory/hypothesis of the research and alters behavior to conform/dispel it