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104 Cards in this Set

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10 areas of study in linguistics
morphology, syntax, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, applied linguistics, phonetics, phonology, semantics, pragmatics.
morphology study def
study of the form of words: how groups of words share related meanings through regular patterning.
syntax study def
study of the grammatical form of sentences.
psycholinguistics study def
study of how language is represented in the mid; also includes the study of how languages are acquired.
sociollinguistics study def
examination of the relationships between language and the social structure.
anthropological linguistics study def
study of the relationships between language and culture.
applied linguistics study def
application of the findings of linguistics to real world problems. e.g. language teachin, language policy, etc.
phonetics study def
study of the production of speech by the human vocal mechanism; how sounds are made, and how speakers of diff accents differ.
phonology study def
study of the pronunciation of words and sentences; what basic sounds are used by a language, what regular patterning occurs in a language.
semantics study def
the study of hte meaning of sentences.
pragmatics study def
study of how sentences are used to communicate. what are the rules of discourse that mean we can follow each other's conversations.
what do we know when we know a language
sound system, words.
sound system (knowing a language)
knowing what sounds are in the language and what sounds are not.
words (knowing a language)
knowing that certian sequences of sounds signify certain concepts or meanings. ARBITRARY!!
what we know about language; things that are common in all languages
no primitive language (right or wrong). change through time. sounds and meanings arbitrary, finite set of sounds, infinite number of sentences. negating, questions, commands, past or future time. ability to acquire language, categorical and variable features, etc...
behaviorist view (acquisition)
b.f. skinner. we start with a blank slate. children learn to produce correct sentences b/c they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong.
plato's problem (acquisition)
chomsky. how can we know so much given that we have such limited evidence.
innatist view (acquisition)
chomsky. children extract from the linguistic enviornment those rules of grammar that are language specific, such as word order or movement rules. they do not need to learn general principles b/c the principles are part of the innate blueprint for language that children use to construct the grammar of their language.
evidence to support chomskys innatist view
all children successfully learn their native laungage. language that children are exposed to does not contain examples of all the information they will need to know. animals cannot learn language. children learn language w/o needing someone to consistently point out to them which sentences they hear and produce are correct and which are not.
do children learn language through imitation?
no. b/c they say sentences that they would not have heard from their enviornment.
order of acquisition of english morphemes
-ing, plural -s, irregular past, possesive 's,copula (to be), aritcales 'the', 'and,' regular past -ed, third person singular -s, auxiliary 'be.'
evidence that children acquire rules; wug test
determined whether kids are imitating or not. 1 wug. 2 wugs. automatic.
number of stages of development of questions
6
stage 1
single words, formulae, or sentence fragments. four children? a dog?
stage 2
declarative word order. it's a monster in the corner? the little boys throw the shoes?
stage 3
fronting, no inversion do-fronting, other-fronting. where the children are? do you have a shoes on your picture? is the picture has two planets on the top?
stage 4
inversion of wh- + 'yes/no' questions. wher eis the sun? is there a fish in the water?
stage 5
inversion in wh- questions. how do you say x? what's the boy doing?
stage 6
complex questions. it's better, isn't it? why can't you go? (negative) can you tell me what the date is today? (embedded question)
what is the critical period hypothesis
eric lenneberg. language is biologically based. the ability to learn a native language develops within a fixed period from bith to middle childhood. during this critical period language acquisition proceeds easily, swiftly, and without external intervention. after the critical period, the acquisition of grammar is difficult and for most individual never fully achieved.
evidence for critical period
common in natural world, birds fail to learn song. feral children: genie, victor, amala and kamala.
critical period for SLA (second language acquisition)
there is no critical period. we acquire second language in the same way we acquire the full grammatical system of a first language. children and adults acquire languages differently. children have access to universal grammar. adults learn languages in the same way they learn anything else complicated.
bilingualism as a first language
majority of human beings are bilingual. mixing is common. this is a normal process.
theories of bilingual acquisition
unitary system hypothesis an separate systems hypothesis
unitary system hypothesis
the child begins wih a single grammar and a single lexicon.
separate systems hypothesis
the child builds separate grammars and separate lexicons for each language.
possible explanations of why children mix languages
to fill lexical gaps. because they code-switch, just as many adult bilinguals do.
what do children acquire when they acquire a language
grammar, phonological, morphoological, syntactic and semantic rules. they also acquire pragmatic rules and they acquire the lexicon. at a very young age, children begin to acquire different styles and even different patterns of variation.
universal stages of language acquisition
early babbling-includes many sounds not found in the child's enviornment.

late babbling-has phonological characterstics of the inpur language(s)

holophrastic stage-one word utterances, usually towards the end of the first year.

two word stage (telegraphic stage)-usually function words and grammatical morphemes are missing.
conventional
in asl the shape or movement of the hands does not reveal the meaning of the gestures.
sound symbolism
in language, words whose pronunciation DOES suggest the meaning of the word.
onomatopoeic words
words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. e.g. buzz, or murmur.
there is arbitrary relationship between _____ and _____
form(sounds) and meaning(concept)
what is the creative aspect of the language
ability to combine sounds to form words, words to form phrases, and phrases to form sentences which are infinite. can understand and produce new sentences.
what is linguistic competence
permits us to form longer and longer sentences.
what is linguistic performance
how we use our knowlege of language in actual speech production and comprehension.
what is prescriptive grammar
when grammarians tried to prescribe what grammar should be rather than describe what it actually is.
what is a teaching grammar
a grammar used to learn another language or dialect.
what is universal grammar
the rules that represent the universal properties of all languages.
what is a lexicon
a word
what is linguistic determinism
hypothesis that the language we speak determines how we perceive and think about the world.
what is linguistic relativism
hypothesis which syas that different languages encode different categories and that speakers of different languages therefore think about the worlod in different ways.
are linguistic determinism and relativism true
most not. they are false.
do children learn language through reinforcement
no
do children learn language by analogy?
no. they do not learn language by using sample sentences to form other sentences.
what is connectionism
a model of grammar that consists of networks of neurons. behaviorist view of how language is acquired.
do children learn through structured input
no. children do not learn language because their mothers talk to them in a special way "motherese"/CDS child directed speach/babytalk.
what are the ideas of the behvoirist view
learn language by; imitation, reinforcement, analogy, through structured input, connectoinism.
what is the poverty of the stimulus
argument in support of the innateness hypothesis. the observation that the grammar a person ends up with is vastly underdetermined by linguistic experience or the language that surrounds them.
what is an utterance
any speech sequence consisting of one or more words and preceded and followed by silence: it may be coextensive with a sentence.
what is overgeneralization
acquisition of morphology. children's treatment of irregular verbs and nouns as if they were regular. foots, gived
order involved with overgeneralization
phase 1 broke

phase 2 breaked

phase 3 broke
MLU mean length of utterances
acquisition of syntax.
bilinguals tend to have what?
better metalinguistic awareness: speakers conscious awareness of language and the use of language.
fundamental difference hypothesis
acquisition of L2 is fundamentally different than that of L1
interlanguage grammars
intermediate grammars that L2ers learn on their way to the goal
children tend to learn deictic later. what are they and why?
they are abstract words whose meanings change each time you use them. e.g. she, there, yesterday.
fossilization
period where you can't gain fluency when learning a language after the critical period.
what do we know when we know a word
meaning, sound, grammatical category or syntactice class(love = N and V), internal structure(missed = miss + ed).
morpheme
the smallest unit of language that carries meaning or serves a grammatical function. boys=2 morphemes.
allomorph
an alternate (phonological) realization of a morpheme in a particular enviornment. -ed has 3 realizations. talked, loved, and wanted. all sound diff.
free morphemes
may constitute words by themselves. word, child...etc.
bound morphemes
are never words by themselves. un, -ed, -s
derivational morpheme
morpheme added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, possibly changing the syntactic category. drive--> driver
inflectional morpheme
a bound grammatical morpheme that is affixed to a word accoarding to the rules of syntax. suffix -s must be attached to the third person singular present form of verb.
content words
N, V, adj, adv. denote objects, actions, attributes, and ideas. aka: open class words
function words
and, or, but, he, she. words with no grammatical relation and have little or no semantic content. aka: closed class words
affixes are what kind of morpheme?
bound
types of affixes
prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix (discountinous morphemes)
morphologically complex words have ___ and ___
roots and stems
roots
lexical content morpheme that can not be further broken down. ex. paint
stem
when a root is combined w/ an affix
monomorphemic
a word w/ only one morpheme
accidental gaps
well formed, but non exciting word. such as chomskyan
productive
some morephological rules are productive meaning that they can be used freely to form new words.
antonym
negative... unfit, unafraid.. etc.
coinage
the construction of new words that become a part of the lexicon. e.g. podcast
eponyms
words that are coined from proper names and are of the many creative ways that the vocabular of language expands. e.g. sandwhich, robot, gargantuan, jumbo.
back-formations
creating of a new word by removing the affix from an old word.. or a mistaken affix.
compound words, head
workhorse, bittersweet. head is the part that determines the lexical category.
blends
like compounds, but part of the combined words are deleted.
clipping
cutting long words.. e.g. fax
cronyms
nasa, t.v.
suppletive means
irregular
what does a structure tree show
the hierarchial organization of a sentence.
what are constituents
natural gruopings of words in a sentence. they can be distinguished by any 1 of 4 tests.
tests for constituencies
1. wh-question

2. one words situation (pronoun)

3. omission

4. moved as a unit
what is a syntactic category
a family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality.
what are the syntactic categories
np, vp, adjp, pp, advp
what are functional categories
det= articles.. a, the, or demonstratives this, that thoese, those, and coutning words.. each, every.

aux= verbs.. have, had, be, was where. and modals may, might, can could mshall should, will, would.

complementizer (c)=words such as that, if whether that introduce embedded sentences.
what are the phrase structure rules
1. linear order of words

2. id of the syntatic categories of the words and groups of words

3. hierarchial structure of syntactic categories.
head and compliment
head is the word whose lexical category defines the type of phrase. everything else in the phrase is the complement. "tell john to go to bed" tell=head. "john to go to bed"=verb compliment.
what are the 3 kinds of verbs
transitive-needs 1 phrase after it (i want)

intransitive-doesn't need a phrase after it (i tried)

distransitive-needs 2 phrases after it (i gave)
waht is a specifier
the det in the NP .. and the adv in the verb phrase etc.