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57 Cards in this Set

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people of the Abrahamic tradition-Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Islam originated from the Abrahamic religion, there is a close kinship between Judaism and Christianity with Islam. Abraham was one of the earliest prophets/messagers and him and his son Ismail’s lineage provides the Muslim tradition
Ahl al-kitab
religion, judgment, justice.
The Holy Book of Islam, it confirms corrects and completes earlier messages. It is hudan li-nas or guidance for humanity. It is considered the miracle of Islam. Qur’an means recitation. The preserved tablet. Revealed over 22-23 years. 114 chapters/suras which are divided into verses/ayat; arranged longest to shortest except al-Fatiha. About what God wants us to do-moral awareness and conviction, action oriented.
Trust of God, the trust we undertook at creation to be God’s stewards. Life is meaningful because of amana
God, god-ilah, the god is al-ilah→Allah.
stewardship-human beings are created with purpose; khalifa-steward, we are created as stewards to bring about God’s will be creating a just society. Adam was the first khalifa
chapter. 114 suras in the Qur’an. All 114 chapters have names, 29 begin with letters that are considered the mystical letters, all but 1 chapters start with “bismi Allah ar-rahman ar-rahim.”
human beings are born with good nature vs. being born already guilty with sin. In Islam human are born with a clear good nature/conscience
translated as signs of God, verses of the Quran. Chapters of the Qur’an can have anywhere from 7-100 ayat. The first ayat of all but one sura starts in the name of God…”
usury; a practice that the Qur’an prohibits because of the prevalence of unjust interest rates. Today there are various opinions about whether or not Muslim countries should allow interest at all.
guidance for humanity, demands that people live by its commands, the actions that humankind should take to construct a just society. The idea that the role of the Qur’an is guidance.
to strive, exert, or fight-the only legal warfare in Islam, carefully controlled in Islamic law. The struggle for the betterment of the Islamic community. Violent or non-violent.
a person or people who has memorized the Qur’an. There are 7 different ways to recite the Qur’an that vary in pronunciation. Requires a lot of training, an honorable title to earn in the Muslim community.
prophet, warns against evil and gives news of reward, gospel, not about the future. Teaching is exemplified in their life
recitation of the Qur’an. Singing on a consonant, how the Qur’an is meant to be heard and understood because it was originally recited by the Prophet Muhammed. Highest of the oral arts.
messenger, same as Nabi but brings a law, scripture or both
Mosque, the Islamic place of worship. Literal meaning is a place of “prostration.” Muslims pray at these locations five times a day, as prescribed in the Qur’an.
came to the Prophet, the agent of revelation. Sent by God to reveal the Qur’an to Muhammad. Also mentioned as protector of Muhammad, Hadith record him testing Muhammad on doctrinal questions
Arabic word for Sermon. Given by the Imam/prayer leader at the mosque. Occur on Friday’s
the “Ascension” of the Prophet. Occurred on the eve of his immigration to Medina. His ascent to God and return to the world. The Prophet did not literally ascend or go upwards but rather the agent of revelation came down to him. Spiritual experience.
the direction to be faced during prayer. Muslims pray in the direction of Mecca the Kaaba is the sanctuary at the center of Mecca. Prayer in this direction is supposed to symbolize equality for all humanity.
made out of fire rather than clay, less virtuous, less physical than humans but endowed with the ability to choose between good and evil. Folklore-held responsible for miraculous or unusual events, illnesses. Mentioned in the Qur’an twice.
the first critical printed edition of the Qur’an. Critical-done for all works done before the printing press (check for mistakes). Produced one that seemed to be the most accurate
another name in the Qur’an for objective evil. Also false god or idol. Rulers who arrogate God’s absolute power and use it to oppress people. Everything that is worshipped or followed other than Allah
according to Islam this is the holy book of the story of David, one of the four holy books revealed by God before the Qur’an. Some scholars equate this with the biblical book of Psalms
the equivalent of the Devil, the personification of evil. The equivalent of the angel who was ejected from heaven for disobeying God. The one who tempted Adam and Eve
the Arabic name for the Christian gospel, and one of the four Islamic holy books in the Qur’an, the Gospel of Jesus
means adversary, the personification of evil, used interchangeably with Iblis
the source of the monotheistic religion. Zoroaster received wisdom from one true god Ahura Mazda-who eternally combats evil (Ahriman). Humans must choose between good and evil-dualism, order and disorder. The scripture are called avestas. Its traditions are very similar to Christians and traditional Islamics (Virgin birth)
multi-layered self delusion, it will be lifted at the time when you no longer change things, you will be able to see clearly the impact of everything and the impact of what you’ve done. Self delusion can put blinders on us so that we think what we are doing is okay, make excuses.
dualism refers to the concept of good and evil and the idea that Muslims are different than other faiths which are fatalistic because Islam is less about belonging to a faith, it is about how you live your life. Pluralism-inclusiveness, the acceptance of other faiths by Muslims, the acknowledgement that there are other paths to God. Acknowledgement of the legitimacy of other faiths, Islam is superior to other religions but it protects individual rights to practice the religion of their choice privately.
Dualism, pluralism
popular belief that they are virgins offered as rewards to martyrs and have been used to motivate suicide bombers. They are not given a gender in the Qur’an but they are given genders later, and they are described as being pure or purified souls. There are 4 references to them in the Qur’an. Modern jihadi view that martyrs will each have 70-72.
the 2 angels who visit a person in their grave and test them for entry into paradise or hell, they are not mentioned by name in the Qur’an but described in traditions as being black with green eyes and asking a series of questions testing faith, and possibly even punishing the person in the grave, as a sort of purgatory before paradise. Jihadii’s believe that a martyr is spared the interrogation, they bypass purgatory
Nakir and Munkar
Father of the monotheistic faiths, wanted to have a child but Sara could not so he had a child with Hagar-Ismail. Then Sara has a child-Isaac, and Hagar and Ismail are banished. They are then banished to Mecca because of primogeniture and the oldest son becomes the primary inheritor. Muslims are descendants of Ishmael and Abraham. God told Abraham that he would be the father of the nation and have many descendants. Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his own son showed his huge obedience to God’s command. This action sealed the agreement/covenant between God and humanity, wherein God promises eternal reward to all who submit to God’s will. This is where the term ‘muslim’ or ‘one who submits to the will of God,’ comes from.
Sara, Hajar, Isma`il/Ishmael; Isaac/Ishaq, Abraham
the moderate way: a median or balanced community of Muslims. Important parts of al-ummat al-wasit include islam, iman, taqwa, and a generally virtuous life; the Qu’ran and the Prophet warn against factionalism and extremism, both of which do not fall under al-ummat al-wasit
Al-ummat al-wasit
literally means faith or belief, refers specifically to faith in the religion of Islam. Technically faith in the religion of Islam. Suggests security for believers against untruth and misguidance in this world and punishment in the afterlife. Assumes belief in the oneness of God, angels, prophets, revealed books, and the hereafter. Faith is a matter of free choice in Islam but is also considered a gift from God; no one is to be compelled to believe. The Quran establishes the close connection between faith and action, so that true faith manifests itself in right conduct. Iman is inner faith and actually being a Muslim, Islam is an outward adherence to Islam.
served as examples of messengers who brought warnings to their communities which then rejected the message of God. The Quran warns Muslims not to succumb to the same tribulations as the people of Moses. Noah was saved by God while the rest of the world was wiped clean by the flood. Noah was saved by God while the rest of the world was wiped clean by the flood. Hud was an Arab messenger who warned his community to follow God, but who rejected him. Salih was another messenger who was rejected again by the same community that rejected Hud. the Quran refers to the story of the Midianites, who were done away with when they rejected their messenger Shu’aib.
Moses, Noah, Hud, Salih, Shu’aib, Jesus
the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammed, a compliment or an accompaniment to the Qur’an. The Qur’an interpreted and Islam embodied. Second major core of Islam for interpreting the Qur’an the normative example of Prophet Muhammad, an example that should be followed. Al-Shafii, first attempt to formalize the Sunnah by equating them with credible hadith reports-the oral reports of what the Prophet. 6 Hadith Reports-Bukhari and Muslim are considered sahih and 4 others are considred hasan
Refer to the five basic practices of Islam. The tenets originally structured early Islamic life in Medina and continue to serve as simple practices designed to constantly remind believers of their commitment to the divine will and focus them on the core values of Islam: equality of all humans before God, and the call to contribute to the well-being of Society. Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm or Siyyam, Hajj
5 pillars
abrogation-tool used to resolve contradictions in Quranic verses, hadith literature, tafsir and usual al-fiqh whereby later verses abroate earlier ones
means immigration-process of moving from one place to another. Specifically moving from Mecca to Medina by Muhammad, the original Hijrah occurred in 622. The first year of the Muslim calendar-Muhammad’s arrival in Medina marks the formal beginning of the Islamic community (ummah). Hijrah symbolizes a journey made for religious reasons, often to escape persecution. Also can mean abandoning sinful behavior to pursue righteousness
the last pillar of the 5, an individual requirement for all Muslims that are financially and physically able. The annual pilgrimage to Mecca in which the pilgrims reenact a series of events in Abraham and Ismael’s lives. Only counts as a pillar during the month of Ramadan.
exegesis of the Qur’an, literally means pulling out the meaning. There are preset meanings in the Qur’an which can be accessed and pulled out. The notion that there are preset meanings in the Qur’an that can be pulled out-analysis, someone who does tafsir is a mufassir
the third pillar of Islam, literally means charity. More than a financial transaction-important because it connotes the path toward purity-the intention to give to those who are weaker.
first person to have ever done a tafsir-legitimized the idea of doing tafsir because he was cousin of the Prophet, traditionally only the ulama were the only ones that could do it, you had to be super highly trained in traditional modes to perform this
Ibn Abbas
the first of the five pillars, literally means witness, to bear witness, or testimony. The Islamic profession of faith, recitation of the Islamic witness of faith.
the last name is known only to God the point is that we as human beings cannot capture God and make him finite, it always has to be kept open. The most commonly used name is al-Rahman
Names of God
the second pillar of Islam is prayer which is required five times daily. The times of prayer are determined by the sun’s position. Can be performed in any clean space either individually or communally the cleansing rituals can be symbolic. (Wudu) Must be done facing the direction of the Kaaba
fear of God/righteousness, doing good things because the idea of doing sinful things is too awful, the idea of an inner moral torch, develop personal conscience, quintessential virtues, the idea of getting closer to the right way the idea of getting closer to taqwa ex: being good to your parents
means successor, those who succeeded Muhammad as rulers 632. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali who died in 661. These four caliphs are the rightly guided or Rashidun caliphs. Controversy over legitimacy of succession led to a division in Islam, Shi’I believe Ali was rightfully the first caliph.
school of legal thought-usually referring to the four/five schools of Islamic law or fiqh (jurisprudence)
roots of law, the four school of Sunni Islamic thinking agree on the four. 1) Qur’an is the highest authority, primary base of law. 2) Sunnah/Hadiths 3)consensus or ijma ones that were older 4) ijtihad, only used if you do not find a precedent applicable
Usul al-fiqh
consensus or agreement of earlier scholars-one of the four usual al fiqh
the four schools of thought for Sunnis and the one for Shi’i, Shafi’I comes from al-Shafi’i, the Architect of Islamic law. The schools follow the 4 usul al-fiqh
Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi`i, Hanbali, Ja`fari
means goals or purposes. The maqasid al-Shariah is the integrated value system that remains the same across Islamic societies. Preserve-life, religion, property, family, and reason. If all members of a family/society have these values preserved for them then they have reached maslaha. The weaker member of the community is a measure of the well being of society.
forbidden. The spectrum is required (wajid), recommended (mustahab), neutral (mubah), discouraged (makruh), and forbidden. Idea of fard al-ayni individual responsibility, fard-kifaya communal responsibility
fixed penalities in Islamic law. The terms refers to fixed and mandatory punishments for certain offenses mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunna/hadith. The six crimes for which punishments are fixed are theft, illicit sexual relations, making unproven accusations of illicit sex, drinking intoxicants, apostasy and highway robbery