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67 Cards in this Set

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Fiqh, usul al-fiqh
legislation derived from sources of Shari’a. It is fallible and changing, it is humanity’s effort to interpret God’s will through constant ijtihad.

Quran, Sunna, Ijma, and then if you still cannot find an applicable precedent you use ijtihad.
Fana'
absorption of God also translated as extinction or annihilation of the self or selfishness. Not separate from mainstream Islam just deeper than mainstream Islam. In Sufism is following what your heart tells you
Ijma
consensus. The third source of usul al-fiqh. Validity is found through community consensus or consensus of the scholars
Ijtihad, taqlid
interpretation of independent reasoning. Usually done by scholars through ray or personal opinion or qiyas or analogical reasoning. Important for keeping fiqh flexible and changeable. applying reason

means to imitate or follow precedent of religious authorities without questioning their decisions or reasoning.
Qiyas
analogical reasoning. The deduction of legal prescriptions from the Qur’an or Sunnah by analogical reasoning. Provided Muslim jurists with a method of deducing laws on matters not explicitly covered by the Quran or Sunnah without relying on opinion or ray. Syllogistic/analogical reasoning.
Faqih, fuqaha
an expert in Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh. Constituted a major segment of the religious elite and were considered guardians of the community and its religion. The functioned as qadi and muftis.
Sahih hadiths
out of al the Hadith reports, 6 collection are considered sound

made by Bukhari or Muslim
Hadd, hudud
fixed punishment or boundaries/limits there are 6 fixed punishments for theft, drunkenness, illicit sex, false allegations of illicit sex, apostasy, and hiraba
Qisas
retaliation or retribution. Similar to eye for an eye. Prescribed in Islamic law for murder, voluntary murder, involuntary killing, intentional physical injury and unintentional physical injury
Qadi, mufti, fatwa
a judge in Shari’a law that should be chosen from among the fuqaha. (Deals mostly with family law, property, and commerce).

a person authorized to give a fatwa and also a scholar and interpreter of Islamic law.

a non binding authoritative legal opinion
Haram, halal
means prohibited or forbidden

includes four things-wajid or required, mustahab or recommended, mubah or neutral, and makruh or discouraged
sufism/tasawwuf
the spiritual heart and core of Islam; Islamic mysticism. The internalization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice. strive to constantly be aware of God's presence, stressing contemplation over action, spiritual development over legalism, and cultivation of the soul over social interaction.
Rabi'a
the first Sufi saint from Iraq. (d 801)
Rumi/Mevlevis
(d 1273), Persian, Muslim poet, jurist, theologian. Sufi poet best known for mystical poetry.

Started the this Sufi order, Turkish Sufi order known popularly as “whirling dervishes” after a special dance used as a meditation ritual.
Ibn 'Arabi
(d 1241). Medieval Sufi of the intense intellectual side of Sufism. Spanish. Believed that even though there is a diverse existence, in reality all creation is unified; oneness of being; unity of existence. Believed that although it seems like the world is full of discrete separate things, in reality all of existence is unified. The oneness of being/existence wahda al-wujud. Teaches that God is ultimate exitence, undifferentiated reality. All existence is unified, every single thing that exists it compromised of precisely the same material. Everything is energy. Our ultimate destiny is to be reabsorbed.
Tariqa
order, path, street
al Gilani/Qadiris
Persian. Became a popular preacher with his own Sufi school and center. Most universally popular saint and holy man in Islam.

Recognized as the patron and founder of the this order but did not actually propagate any tariqah (order) during his lifetime; the order named after him was developed by his descendants and followers posthumously and has spread throughout the Islamic world. Has a reputation for theological soundness. Stressed simple piety, charity, honesty and sincerity as opposed to just self denial. One of the most widespread orders in the world today.
Zawiyya/khankah/tekke
can refer to a sufi brotherhood or a shrine to a saint; building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood, or tariqa, a dervish lodge
Dhikr
the remembrance of God, focuses on repetition of God’s name or phrase or expression of praise repeated continually. An Islamic devotional act typically involving the repetition of the names of God
Salah al-Din
(d 1193). Iraqi Kurd who fought back against the Europeans to recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Took Egypt from Fatimids and returned it to being Sunni and also took control of Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and western Arabia. (United forces to conquer the Europeans). Established ayyubid dynasty.
Fatimids
Isma’ili, Shia dynasty. In Yemen, North Africa, Sicily, Syria, and Western Arabia. Established in Cairo in 969-military power and cultural center. Established the first university in the West, al-Azhar university in Cairo. Nizaris broke off from the them. Overthrown by Salah al-Din
Azhar
the oldest university in the western world, started by Fatimids. Founded 969/970
Shi'a
Greatest difference: after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) each preferred a different method of selection of succession.

They say that the first four caliphs were Rashidun, all of whom were legitimate; the succession of caliphs should be via appointment.

This group on the other hand say that the first three caliphs were usurpers and only Ali was a legitimate caliph. Succession must past through the bloodline of the prophet-called Imam.
Twelver, Isma'ili, Nizari
are the majority group for Shi’a. They believe that the 12th imam in the late 9th century didn’t die but went into occultation. (Ithna-Ashari) believe that the imam is fully existent somewhere. He will return in regular presence at the end of times as the mahdi.

a group of Shi’a who followed the second son of Jafari or the 7th descendant so some people call them the seveners.

Shi’a who broke off from the Isma’ilis/Fatimids in 1094 over the succession of the Fatimid caliphate believed that Nizar was the rightful imam and the succession had been unfairly passed over in favor of his younger brother and this led to civil war. Got the name of assassins from the crusaders due to association political murder.
Imam, imam
in Shi’a means descendents of the Prophet/Ali and Fatima.

in Sunni is the leader of prayer
Maqasid al-Shar'iah
what is meant to be preserved in society-life, religion, property, family, and reason. If all members of a family/society have these values preserved for them then they have reached maslaha the weakest member of the community is a measure of the well being of society
Mahdi
the guided one, divinely guided one. Will return at the end of time to usher in the perfect time of justice. Muslims believe will usher in an era of justice and true belief just prior to the end of time. he will appear when the world is irretrievably corrupt; his reign will be a time of natural abundance; he will spread justice, restore the faith, and defeat the enemies of Islam.

Twelver shi’a believe he will be Ithna-Hshari returned from occulation.
Suleiman
(c.1494–1566) His reign marked the peak of the Ottoman Empire in power and prosperity as well as in its governmental, social, and economic systems. Known as Kanuni (the Lawgiver) within the empire. Declared himself the supreme caliph of Islam. He regarded Christian-dominated Europe as the principal threat to the Muslim faith and considered his invasions of the continent to be part of a holy war against the enemies of Islam. He was just with the people he conquered, including giving autonomy to religious communities and equal taxation. Transformed Israel. Perfect ruler. Established Ottoman secular code of laws separate from Sharia.
'Abbas
(1587-1629) Safavid shah, oversaw an evolution in Iran to a quasi-bureaucratic state.
regained Safavid control in Iraq. Also reestablished road security and had a great many caravans roads constructed throughout his realm. He aimed to find allies in his anti-Ottoman struggle. He allowed Christian missionaries to settle and operate in his realm. He similarly welcomed various Western trading nations.
Akbar
(1556-1605) Regarded as the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. He even started his own religion (Din-il-Ilahi) which included the major teachings of the world religions. He ruled the greater part of the Indian subcontinent and was ruler at the height of the Mughal empire.
Ottomans
(1517-1924)- 1300 to 1923 ; its territories ultimately encompassed southeastern Europe, Anatolia, the Middle East to Iran, and North Africa. Mehmed II conquered Constantinople ( 1453 ), which had been ravaged and depopulated by the Latin Crusaders since 1204 ; he rebuilt and repopulated the city. The reign of Suleyman the Magnificent , 1520 – 66 , marked the peak of power and prosperity. Disintegrated completely in 1924 when Kemal Ataturk abolished the Muslim caliphate and founded the Republic of Turkey.
Saffavids
(1502-1722)- Founded by Ismail I. In Persianate areas, expanded into Iran. They were defeated by the Ottomans in 1514, losing Baghdad as their capital, and built a new capital in Isfahan. Established twelver school of Shi’a Islam.
Mughals
(1526-1857)-Medieval Islamic empire in India/subcontinent. Founder=Babur. Descendant of Timur Lang and Genghis Khan. Greatest leader=Akbar who was known for religious cooperation. His son, Jahagir maintained much openness and Jahagir’s son Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal. The empire reached its zenith under four great emperors (Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb) Raja princes kept autonomy for a long time. The british come to India for trading and take control after a rebellion in 1857 marks the end of the empire
Suhrawardi
Sufi philosopher who sought to synthesize philosophy and mysticism. Credited wth founding illuminationism. Ishraqi and Nurbakhshi tariqahs trace their origins to him. An orthodox Sufi order founded in Baghdad in the 12th century. Rejected music, poetry, and the practice of prostration before the head of the order. Supported first conversion of Hindus and Buddhists.
Sirhindi
Indian Sufi whose ideas shaped the Naqshbandi order. Addressed the need for revival of orthodoxy, suppression of superstitious Sufi practices and humiliation of infidels. Prime concern was integrating Sufi ideas within a Sunni framework. Tried to reform from within, too much core believe one God is transcendent. Supported stricter Islam. Promoted wahdat al-shuhud (unity of appearance. Obedience to Islamic law as a means of achieving spiritual realization.
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor of India from 1658-1707. Worked hard to expand and get southern India under Mughal control, but the empire began to shrink under his control. Not as tolerant of other religions which caused a weakening of the empire. Policies of military expansion and Islamic orthodoxy.
Deoband
Indo-Pakistani reformist ulama movement. School founded in 1867 to preserve the teachings of the faith during non-Muslim rule. Educated Muslims in correct practice and emphasized individual responsibility for correct belief. Emphasized hadith, the Hanafi legal tradition, and encouraged spiritual transformation through sober Sufism.
Aligarh
large town in Western India associated with major Muslim educational, political, and ideological movements since the late nineteenth century. Home to two schools established to make contemporary European education available to a primary Muslim public. Established in 1920 by Sayyid Khan to educate India Muslims in contemporary European disciplines and Islamic heritage. Served as an arena for social and political controversy and as the center of Indian nationalism.
Ajmer
it became an important center of trade and a military base during the Muslim Mughal rule in India. It hosts the mausoleum of the most important Muslim saint of India, Muin al-Din Muhammad Chishti (d. 1236), the founder of the Chishti Sufi order, and the palace of Akbar , the most celebrated of all the Mughal kings who ruled India from 1556 to 1605 .
Chishti, Nasqshbandi
This is one of the most popular Sufi brotherhoods of South Asia founded 13th century. The members portray themselves as embracing poverty and avoiding contact with temporal rulers. Focused on practical and emotional mysticism and the close relationship between elder and disciple rather than academic or intellectual sophistication. Special musical culture called qawwali-light hindu classical music with poetry.

This tariqa is one of the most widespread and vigorous Sufi orders. Originated in Bukhara 14th century. Strict adherence to Islamic law, sobriety in devotional practice that results in the shunning of music and dance and preference for silent dhikr and frequent tendency to political activity. The only sufi order that claims to trace its direct spiritual lineage to Muhammad through Abu Bakr.
Ibn Taymiyya
(d. 1328) faqih, hanbali: in his efforts to reform Muslim society at the time he established what would become the major themes of Islamic reform. Major ideologue at the time of the Mongol invasions in Turkey. Emphasized individual empowerment/responsibility and a return to the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
Khajarites
the “Seceders” religious zealots and radicals who had supported Ali. When he chose to arbitrate with the Umayyads they turned against him for arbitrating with sinners. Those who killed Ali for arbitrating with sinners thus a betrayal of Islam. They advocated strongly for individual responsibility and accountability as well as believed they had to be vigilant against those who didn’t live up to it. Became outlaws for killing Ali, called for continued justice/judgment against unbelievers/those who had once accepted Islam but were no longer Muslims (takfir).
Mutazilites
known as Islam’s rationalists., they chose to stress God’s justice, rather than God’s omnipotence. Insisted on free-will. Whatever happens is not because human beings did it but because God did it. Critics said that this position put boundaries on God as if to say that God would be forced to judge in specific ways based on what humans did.
al-Wahhab
18th century founder of Wahhabi Islam who called for the renewal of ijtihad. His teachings are often referred to as salafi or “following the forefathers of Islam” or the idea of going back to exactly what things were like for the prophet (like the Taliban). Against practices such as Sufism. Espoused the teaching of the oneness of God and he and his followers believe in the literal interpretation of the Qur’an and strict adherence to Islamic traditionalism.
'Abudh
(d 1905) Egyptian reformer and proponent of Islamic modernism and nationalism. He was influence both by Sufism and by the Iranian pan-Islamist Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and worked to reverse the decline he felt had set in upon the Muslim world after colonialism. Believed in individual initiative, the importance of knowledge, Sufism and reform, and the legal reform of ijtihad as well as had respect for the west
Jamaat-i Islami
South Asia’s dominant movement of Islamic revival established by Mawdudi in the 1940’s, active in Pakistan. Believed in the betrayal of the west and of the Islamic thinkers who had respect for the west and essentially worked to make Islam the supreme authority in Muslim life. He called for the engagement of jihad to reestablish Islam, feared the west’s influence and destruction of Islam, especially at the time of its founding, the pain of colonialism still fresh on the mind
Mawdudi
(d. 1979) was the founder of Jamaat-i Islami. In his works he called Islam the ideal solution to all of society’s ills. He, in contrast with many other systems, did not allow one grou to dominate another and called for an all-embracing order
Khatami
popular president of Iran brought to power in 1997. Stands on platform of reform. Focused on the need to establish a new Iran and his desire to reintegrate Iran into the family of nations, calling for Islamic society to transform itself. He acknowledges colonial history is a problem for struggling Islamic societies, along with defensiveness and emotionalism. He calls for development of freedom of thought and expression in the Muslim world and stands in radical departure from Islamist anit-Westernsim. He believes that the west is hedonistic and greedy, but believes it is not because of its freedoms which he believes are inherent in Islam as well. He stands as a beacon of hope for Iran and neighboring countries, resting on a holistic understanding of humans and in clear contrast to strident and militant stance taken by the Taliban which goon to illustrate the uneasy balance of moderation and progressiveness in the Muslim world.
Iqbal
(d 1938) Muslim poet, philosopher, and politician in British India from Lahore Pakistan. Officially the poet of Pakistan. Educated in Western Europe and was a strong supporter of political and spiritual revitalization of Islamic culture, especially in south Asia. Major part of the “All India spiritual league” which worked for a Muslim state in northwest India. Influenced by Rumi. Supported foundation as a homeland for the Muslims in India. emphasizing Muslim nationalism, the necessity of Muslim self-determination, and national liberation for the Muslims of India. Promoted the exercise of ijtihad ation of the Quran and Sunnah. Laid the groundwork for religion and science as cooperative studies. Encouraged Muslims to learn modern sciences and use modern technology to improve their material existence and expand human development. Regarded as the greatest Urdu poet of the twentieth century; his major poetic works are in Persian. Perhaps his most influential work on Islamic reformism is The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.
Kalam
seeking principles through debate and argument. The major schools of Kalam include both Ashari and Murji’ah. Philosophical, rational, or mystical discussions of revealed truths. Called “disputation” in Arabic. Theological controversies in Islam focus on seven major issues.
Murjites-those that follow the murji’ah Islamic school. Opposed thoughts of Kharijites on sin and definition of true Muslim. Believed in deferred judgement and that Allah was the only true judge of peoples beliefs and sins. They believed that submission to God was overall more important than acts of piety, therefore those that committed grave sins were still able to be admitted to paradise if they stayed faithful
Ashari
(d 935) classical Sunni theological school became an important religious movement forming a middle ground between the rationalism of Mutazilis and the literalism of the Hanbalis. Used a rational approach to religious truth but preserved the primary importance of scriptural revelation as the sole source of certainty. Acknowledged that reason may play a role in defending truth, convincing others, and participating in moral actions but held that all moral actions are governed by God.
al-Afghani
(d. 1897) political activist and writer best known for his role in pan Islamic movement. One of the most influential figures in Muslim world. Most known his hostility toward British rule in Muslim lands. Emphasized practical aspects of political reform and self-improvement including technical and scientific education. Believed in reason and natural law. Stressed the need for internal reform and self-improvement, particularly technical and scientific education. One of the first modern politically activist reformist Muslim figures to use Islam to promote a primarily political program. Famous Persian anti-imperalist
Muslim Brotherhood
(1928) founded by Hasan al-Banna. The world’s oldest and largest Islamic political group. Emerged as a reaction to the division of Arab countries into spheres of influence for European powers, the abolition of the caliphate in Turkey, and western influence on Islamic culture. Promoted benevolence, charity, development, nationalism, independence, and social and governmental reform according to the letter and spirit of Islam. In the 1940s was the most popular and respected of the nationalist forces fighting against British imperialism, military occupation, and Zionism in Palestine. Its leaders and theoreticians are among the most influential of Egypt's twentieth-century political figures; the most famous was Sayyid Qutb
Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb
(d 1949) Egyptian founder of the Muslim brotherhood, transformed it into a political movement 1933. Proclaimed Islam as a comprehensive system of life and the Quran as the only acceptable constitution and law, with Muhammad as model. Rejected secularism and Arab nationalism because he considered all Muslims to be members of a single country. Declared that Muslims had an obligation to engage in individual, rather than collective, jihad. Advocated major principles of Islamic social justice. Declared that the establishment of a just society would not occur through righteous thinking and good works alone, but required institutions, state intervention, and progressive taxes on income and wealth. Advocated implementation of Islamic law only after achievement of an Islamic society of social justice.

(d 1966) Egyptian literary critic, novelist, and poet who became an important Islamist thinker and activist. Brother of Muhammad Qutb . Believed that Islam is a timeless body of ideas and practices forming a comprehensive way of life, rendering nonadherence to Islamic law inexcusable. Interpreted Islam as a call to social commitment and activism. Called for resistance by turning away from existing society and creating a model community, which would eventually establish a truly Islamic state.
Khomeini
(d 1989) of Iran was an avid religious and political leader within Shi’a Islam beginning in the 1950’s. He was exiled during the Shah’s rule, specifically due to his opposition of the White Revolution and capitulations. He returned from exile in 1979 to lead the Islamic Revolution, and then assumed power as the Supreme Leader under the new Islamic constitution in 1979 as well. Opposed the shah's secularization policies and imitation of the West. Advocated clerical leadership in countering the influence of Western ideology and culture. Proclaimed the need to destroy the Iranian monarchy, replace it with an Islamic republic conforming to the Quran and Shii traditions, and implement Islamic law.
Qasim Amin
(d 1908) Egyptian lawyer, writer, advocate of women’s rights. Advocated greater rights for women and spawned great debate over women’s issues throughout the Arab world. Critiqued veiling, female seclusion, early marriage, and lack of education. Historically viewed as a pioneer of Egyptian feminism.
Jizya, kharja, dhimmi
recompense, compensation. Poll tax levied on non-Muslims as a form of tribute and in exchange for an exemption for military service.

tax on agrarian land owned by non-Muslims, distinct from the tax system for Muslim owned agrarian land owned by Muslims

non-Muslim under protection of Muslim law. A covenant of protection with the Muslim power
al-Mawardi
Shafii scholar (d. 1058), wrote al-Ahkan al-Sultaniyya (The Rules of Government); explains that the duties of political leaders fall into 3 categories: defense, treasury, and executive. [Defense: Leader must defend the community from attack, maintain frontier defense, and wage war against those who refuse to become Muslims or enter into treaty with Muslims; Treasury: collect both the alms payment-zakah, and the legitimate spoils of wars, must fairly determine and pay salaries from the treasury; Executive: most importantly make sure that the established principles of religion are safeguarded, and that legal judgments and penalties are enforced.
al-Farabi
(d. 950) founder of Islamic political philosophy and formal logic in the Islamic world. Wrote important commentaries on Aristotle and works of philosophy the most famous of which addresses the question of the virtuous city (al-madinat al-fadilah) characterized by division and protection of all good things among people and by the relationship between ruler and ruled. Revelation is thus philosophy for the masses, and prophets serve as popular examples of obedience to moral law.
Ibn Sina
Avicenna (d. 1037). From Bukhara. The most broad ranging intellect of the medieval Islamic world. He wrote on art, astronomy, geometry, and medicine, among other topics. His most lasting influence – even to the modern age – is in philosophy. His rational clarification of Islamic teaching was heavily influenced by his reading of Plato and Aristotle, and established the model for medieval philosophical theology
Ibn Rushd
(d. 1198) a revered figure in the history of Islamic philosophy. from Cordoba(Spain) interpreted Aristotelian more accurately than had Ibn Sina, and became early medieval Europe’s most important source of knowledge of Aristotle. Build first public hospital supported by waqf.
Waqf/awqaf
are charitable foundations that have throughout history been at the core of Islamic civil society. A kind of trust fund, a gift or bequest of property of the proceeds from a business to benefit society. These were a source of income independent of government control that allowed Muslim legal scholars to maintain their autonomy. People could give money to establish something as small as a local fountain or as large as a hospital. These endowments had to be legally registered and were bound by the law of perpetuity; they could not revert to private use but had to continue to be used as charitable purposes as specified in their original charters.
Ibn Khaldun
(d. 1406) wrote Muqaddimah, an introduction [to the History of the Arabs, Persians, and Berbers]; cited as the first work of historiography and the forerunner to the modern disciplines of anthropology, sociology, economics, and political science. Outlines patterns of social and political development, observing along the way patterns in history and economics; perhaps best known for his theory of cycles or patterns of power.

The rise and fall of regimes is perfectly natural. His analysis divided the world between nomads of the deserts and settled peoples of the towns.
Shura, Bayas
consultation. Abu Bakr led the community through consultation with other elders in the community just like Prophet Muhammad had done. Established a basis for democratic governance in Islam according to many modern interpreters.

the oath that binds two people (ruler and subject, Sufi master and disciple), oath of allegiance to a leader. Unwritten pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that, as long as the leader abides by certain responsibilities toward his subjects, they are to maintain their allegiance to him.
Dar al-islam, dar al-harb
during Muslim Empires' 'Golden Age' and expansion, their method of conquest led them to divide the world into 3 parts. Those who accepted Islam were in a region of covenant.

Those who chose not to to accept Islam were offered treatises, and had to pay tribute for their right to retain religious freedom and internal autonomy (dar al-sulh).

Those who would not accept Islam or treatises had to be dealt with through military action. The region of warfare' does not signify that Muslims were forced to fight them (jihad is legitimate war, harb is not) but it reflects that the region is war-like and Muslims are not safe there.
Madhhab
a Muslim school of law, or fiqh, made up of a body of scholars and usually belonging to one of the 4 Sunni schools and 1 Shi'a school that dictate the usul al-fiqh. These schools began to form in the mid-8th century in Islamic empires. Each one uses the Qu'ran, followed by the Sunnah, as the two principle sources of Islamic jurisprudence, but they differ slightly on their use of other sources.
Shari'ah
God's will for humanity, revealed in nature, history, the Torah and the Gospel's, but most perfectly in the Qu'ran and Sunnah. It is perfect, eternal, and changeless. Specific regulations about ritual, dietary restrictions, and major moral issues (murder, theft, usury) have been made explicit in it, but most other law must be interpreted and derived from its principles in the form of fiqh.