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217 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cardiac and skeletal muscle contains visible bands that are called what?
Striations
The muscular layer of the intestine is composed of what kind of muscle?
Visceral/Smooth
The ability of a muscle to transmit electrical current is termed what?
Excitability
The ability of a muscle to shorten is termed what?
Contractability
Binding sited on the actin molecules are covered by what when at rest?
Troponin and Tropomyosin
The larger of the two filaments that form a cross bridge that is made of protien is called what?
Myosin
The neurotransmitter that is released at the NMJ-neuromuscular junciton is called what?
Acetylcholine
The compound that causes the myosin head to detach from actin is called what?
ATP - Adenosene Triphosphate
What state are muscles that are operating anaerobically said to be in?
In a state of Oxygen debt
What is the polysacharride in muscles, that contains multiple glucose molecules called?
Glycogen
The energy storing compound that is similar to ATP is called what?
Creatine
The increase in muscle size that results from resistance training is termed what?
Hypertrophy
A contraction that shortens the muscle but does not increase the muscle tension is called what?
Isotonic
A muscle contraction that increases in tension is called what?
Isometric
A mucsle that produces a given movement is called what?
A prime mover
The muscle that opposes a given action is called what?
The antagonist
The more moveable attachment point of a muscle is called what?
The insertion
The pivot point of a lever system is called what?
The fulcrum
A term referring to a muscle that decreases the angle at a joint is called what?
A flexer
An adjactive that describes muscle fibers running in a straight line is called what?
Rectus
The prime mover in plantar flexionis what?
Gastronemius
The innermost muscle of the abdomen is called what?
Transverse Abdominis
What does the triceps brachii do?
Extends the arm at the elbow.
What is the cheek muscle that is used in whistling called?
The buccinator
The muscles located between the ribs are called what?
Intercostal Muscles
Specialized membranes that permit electric impulses to pass between cardiac cells is called what?
Intercalated Discs
A bundle of muscloe fibers is called what?
A fasicle
The membrane surrounding individual muscle fibers is called what?
The Endomysium
A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates comprise what?
A motor unit
What are the two filaments that form cross-bridges are called what?
Actin and Myosin
What event occurs during muscle relaxation?
Calcium is pumped into the endoplasmic reticulum
What ion binds the topnin/tropomyosin complex?
Calcium
The compound that binds myosin and provides the energy for power stroke is called what?
ATP
What substance is produced during oxygen debt?
Lactic acid
Which compound stores oxygen in muscle cells?
Myoglobin
What happens to to your blood vessels when you exercise?
The blood vessels dialate
The partial contraction observed in resting muscle is called what?
Muscle Tone
Pushing the feet against the floor is an example of what?
An isometric contraction
A muscle that steadies body parts during a movement is called what?
A Synergist
In an anatomic lever system the fulcrum is what?
The joint
A term referring to a ring shaped muscle is what?
The obicularis
-ceps refers to what when naming muscle parts?
Attachment points
What is the muscle that moves the head called?
The Sternocleidomastoid
Where is the levator ani found?
In the perineum
A muscle located at the angle of the jaw and is used for chewing is what?
The masseter
What muscle closes the lips?
The obicularis oris
What is the antagonist to the adductor group of the thigh?
The gluteus medius
What is an antagonist to the gastrocnemius?
The tibialis anterior
What do the hamstring muscles do?
Flex the leg
Inflammation of connective tissues is called what?
Fibrositis
What is a spasm of visceral muscle called?
Colic
The word part brachi/o refers to what?
Arm
What are 3 types of muscle tissue and its location and function
1. Cardiac, heart's muscle, pumps blood throughout the body 2. Smooth, Intestines and organs 3. Skeletal, supports the framework of the body
What is the definition of brachialgia
Arm pain
What system do the brain and the spinal cord belong to?
The central nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system also called?
The voluntary nervous system
What is the sceintific name for a nerve cell?
Neuron
The fiber that carries theimpulses toward the cell body is what?
A dendrite
Nerves that are both sensory ad motor fibers are described as what?
Mixed
A group of nerve fibers located within the CNS is called what?
A tract
What cells are examples of Astrocytes and Schwann cells?
Neuroglia/Glial cells
A sudden electrical change in the neuronal membrane that is transmitted along an axon is called what?
The acton potential
During the depolarising phase of the acton potentia, ions of what element enter the neuron through channels?
Sodium
Nerve impulse conduction is faster in axons coated in what?
Myelin
A point of junction between two nerve cells is called what?
A synapse
What are the chemicals that transmit a signal across a synapse called?
Neurotransmitters
What is the chemical that transmits the signal across the neuromuscular junction called?
Acetylcholine
The dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord contain what?
Gray matter
Myelinated nervous tissue is what type of matter?
White
Whare do the sensory impulses enter the spinal cord?
Through the dorsal horn
Describe a reflex arc/simple reflex.
A rapid automatic response that involves few neurons
Where does a neuron leaving the spinal cord carrying information away from the CNS exit from?
The ventral horn
What is a reflex that does not pass through the brain?
A spinal reflex
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
How many pairs of cervical nerves are there?
8
Which plexus supplies the nerves to the pelvis and legs?
The lumbosacral plexus
Based on the neurotransmitters, the sympathetic nervous system can be classified as what?
Adrenerggic
What are the autonomic ganglia of the parasympathetic system called?
Terminal Ganglia
An increase in heart rate would be mediated by which branch of the ANS?
The sympathetic branch
What is the viral disease that infects the motor neurons that can lead to paralysis is what?
Poliomeylitis
What is paralysis of both arms called?
Diplegia
A viral infection that can cause numbness and paralysis, and cal lead to the loss of control of involuntary functions, and bladder control is what?
Gaillain-Barre Syndrome; A disease of the spinal nerves
What does the word part -lemma mean?
Sheath
What is the division of nerves that exclusively controls skeletal muscles?
The somatic nervous system
Which part of the nervous system contains ALL of the spinal nerves and cranial nerves?
The peripheral nervous system
What is a fiber that conducts nerve impulses away from a cell body called?
An axon
What are neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain called?
Afferent neurons
What type of nerve only contains efferent fibers?
Motor nerves
What is the membrane that surronds an entire nerve called?
An epineurium
A collection of neuron cell bodies OUTSIDE the central nervous system is called what?
A ganglion
Before the start of an action potential, what state is the neuron membrane in?
At rest
Why do the potassium channels open late in the action potential?
To cause the membrane to repolarize
What is the outtermost part of the myelin sheath called?
The neurilemma
Where does the transmission usually occur at a synapse?
From the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cell
What are the specific proteins on the postsynaptic membrane that the neurotransmitters bind to called?
Receptors
What is contained within the central canal of the spinal cord?
Cerebrospinal fluid
What is the deep groove that divides the left and right portions of the ventral white matter called?
The anterior median fissure
How do the motor impulses travel through the spinal cord?
In descending tracts
Name the correct order of impulse conduction through a reflex arc?
Receptor, Sensory neuron, Interneuron, Motor neuron, Effector
Where are the cell bodies of sensory neurons found?
In the dorsal root ganglion
What muscles does the brachial plexus supply motor impulses to?
The shoulder muscles
Where does the phrenic nerve arise from?
The cervical plexus
Sciatica reflects neuritis in a nerve from where?
The lumbosacral plexus
Sympathetic motor neurons originate from cell bodies in what region of the spinal cord?
The thoracic and lumbar regions
What are the parasympathetic ganglia called?
Terminal ganglia
Abnormal antibodies that attack the meylin sheath around the neurons in the CNS is most likely what?
Multiple Sclerosis
A person who can not move their arms or legsis termed as what?
Tetraplegia
What are the three ways that neurotransmitters are removed from a synaptic cleft?
Diffusion, Destroyed by enzymes, Recycled
The midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblangata are all part of what?
The brain stem
Where are th hypothalamus and the thalamus located?
In the diecephalon
The three layers of connective tissue enclosing the brain and the spinal cord are called what?
The meninges
What is the outter-most layer of the meninges called?
Duramatter
What is the fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord called?
CSF
What is the passage connecting the third and fourth ventricles called?
The cerebral aquaduct
What is a shallow groove on the surface of the brain called?
A sulci
What is an elevation on the surface of the brain called?
A gyri
What is the outer layer of the cerebrum, that contains cell bodies and unmyelinated neurons called?
The cerebral cortex
Impulses from the ear travel to which lobe?
The temporal lobe
What lobe is the primary sensory area found?
The parietal lobe
What is the area of the temporal lobe that interprets sound called?
The auditory association area
The ability to speak a language with difficulty understanding it, suggets damage to what area?
The wernickle area
What area do sensory impulses travel through in the diencephalon?
The thallamus
What is the sea horse shaped area of the brain that is involved in learning and long termed memory?
The hippocampus
What is the concentration of nuclei that regulates sleep, appetite, the ANS and other homeostatic functions?
The hypothalamus
What is the most superior portion of the brain stem called?
The mid brain
Where are the vasomotor and cardiac centers are located?
The medulla oblangata
Where do the cranial nerves V through VIII originate from?
The pons in the brain stem
Which portion of the brain contains the vermis and two lateral hemispheres?
The cerebellum
What is the responsability of the cerebellum?
The maintenance of muscle tone and the coordination of signals from the motor cortex
What machine measures electric currents generated by neurons?
An EEG
How is the metabolic activity of the brain measured?
By a P.E.T
Which nervers contain only sensory fibers?
1,2,8
Which cranial nerve controls the production of gastric juices and the activity of the heart?
10
What is inflammation of the brain called?
Encephalitis
The extraction of CSF is a procedure called what?
A lumbar puncture
A newborn that shows muscle tone loss, and the inability to consistently move it's feet from painful stimuli is most likely the cause of what?
Cerebral palsy
What is the word part that means tounge?
gloss
What system do the hippocampus and the recticular formation belong to?
The limbic system
What is the "little brain" that is located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrial hemisphere?
The cerebellum
What is the function of the dural sinuses?
To drain blood from the brain
What is the layer of the dura matter that closely follows the contours of the brain called?
Pia Matter
CSF flows from the latteral ventricles to the third ventricle how?
By a foramina
What is the vascular network that forms that CSF called?
A choroid plexus
A DEEP groove in the brain is called what?
A fissure
The central sulcus separates what?
The frontal and parietal lobes
Which lobe of the cerebrum lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum?
The occiptal lobe
Were is the visual area of the cortex?
In the occiptal lobe
A difficulty forming words would indicate an injury to what area?
The broca area
Where are impulses from the skin received?
In the primary sensory area of the parietal lobe
The thalamus forms the wall of which ventricle?
The third
How are the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland controlled?
By the hypothalamus
How are the midbrain and the medulla oblangata connected?
By the pons
What part of the brain stem contains the relay centers for the eye's and ear's reflexes?
The midbrain
The vital centers that regulate respiration and the heart are located where?
In the medulla oblangata
A slice of brain that contains an outer layer of gray matter and an inner layer of white matter in a tree like patter is from what part of the brain?
The cerebellum
Which cranial nerves contain all or mostly motor fibers?
3,4,6,11,12
Which cranial nerve supplies motor impulses to the tounge?
The hypoglossal nerve
Multi infarct dementia results from what?
A series of small cerebrovascular accidents
Bleeding into the space between the dura matter and the skull results in what?
An epidural hematoma
An excess of fluid in the eye is known as what?
Glaucoma
An injury to the cranial nerve VII would result in what?
Hemiplegia to the face
What is the meaning of the word part "gyr/o"
Circle
Glossoplegia means what?
Paralasis of the tounge
Which muscle regulates the size of the pupil?
The iris
What is the jelly like material that fills the eyebal called?
The Vitreous body
What is the transparent portion of the sclera that covers the anterior part of the eye called?
The cornea
The fluid that fills the space anterior to the lens is what?
The aqueous humor
The tunic of the eye that contains photoreceptors is what?
The retina
What is the membrane that covers the eyelid called?
Conjunctiva
What is the bending of light rays as they pass through the eye called?
Refraction
What cranial nerve carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain?
Cranial nerve II, Optic nerve
How are visual impulses transmitted?
From the retina to the cortex of the occiptal lobe
What is the ear ossicle that is in contact with the oval window?
The stepes
What are the three bones of the middle ear collectively called?
Ossicles
What is the external part of the ear called?
Pinna
The middle ear cavity and pharynx are connected by a channel called what?
The eustacian tube
The coiled portion of the inner ear, that contains the hearing organ of hearing (corti) is called what?
Conchlea
Receptors in muscles, tendons and joints that helps to judge the position of the body are called?
Proprioceptors
What are the naturally occuring painkillers that are released in the body called?
Endorphins
When a receptor gradually stops responding to a continual stimulus, the process is called what?
Sensory adaptation
Farsightednessthat develops with age is called what?
Presbyopia
An irregular curvature of the lens or cornea is a condition called what?
Astigmatism
An infection of the middle ear cavity is called what?
Otitis Media
What is a myringotomy?
Cutting the tympanic membrane to relieve excess pressure
What is the sceintific name for a "swimmers ear"
Otitis Externa
Opacity (cloudiness) of the eye is called what?
A cataract
The suffix "-opia" means what?
Disorder of the eye/vision
Which area of the tounge is particularly sensative to sweets?
The tip
What is the middle pigmented layer of the eye called?
Choroid
What is the blind spot of the eye called?
The optic disc
What is the point of sharpest vision called?
Fovea Centralis
Where are tears produced?
In the lacrimal glands
What are the receptors for vision called?
Rods and Cones
What is the pigment found in rods called?
Rhodopsin
What is the extrensic eye muscle that covers the bottom part of the eyeball called?
The inferior oblique
What is an example of an intrinsic eye muscle?
The iris
Which nerve governs most of the extrensic eye muscles?
The oculomotor nerve
The pain resulting from a poke in the eye would be transmitted along which cranial nerve?
The opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve
What is the sceintific name for the ear drum?
The tympanic membrane
What is the ossicle of the ear that is connected with the tympanic membrabe called?
The malleus
What do the ceruminous glands secrete?
Wax
What is the receptor for hearing called?
The organ of Corti
What is the VIIIth cranial nerve named?
The vestibulocochlear nerve
Where are the receptors for static equilibrium located?
In the vestibule
Shaking the head in a "no" motion will be sensed by what?
The cristae
What are the receptors that detect the position of the head in relation to gravity called?
The maculae
What do the semicircular canals detect?
Spinning movements
The sensation of falling while standing still will activate receptors called waht?
Maculae
Holding you arm motionless in the airwill be detected by which receptors?
Proprioceptors
When your muscle contracts, which receptor will inform you of the amount of muscle tension?
Proprioceptors
What are the receptors for pain called?
Free nerve endings
What is a heridity disorder that prevents normal vibration of the stapes called?
Otosclerosis
Night blindness is due to a deficiency of what?
Vitamin A
Color blindness is due to a deficiency of what?
Cones
How does the sensory system help to maintain homeostasis?
Helps to detect changes in the environment and reacts to the changes; Sweating
What are the four structures that support the eye and what do they do?
Skull bones for protection, Eyelashes to keep foreign matter out, Eyelids help to keep the eyes lubricated, conjunctiva produces the mucus to lubricate the eye
What are the four structures that refract light in the eye?
Cornea, Aqueous humor, Lense, Vitreous body