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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What nutrient is absorbed into the lymphatic capillaries instead of blood capillaries?
What is the fluid that surrounds the cells called?
Extracellular fluid
What is the fluid that is carried in the lymphatic system called?
What are Lacteals?
Special capillaries in the small intestine that absorb digestive nutrients.
What tissue makes up the lymphatic capillaries?
What large lymphatic vessel drains all of the body except the upper right portion?
The thoracic duct
What is the enlarged portion of the throacic duct called?
The Cisterna Chyli
What is the indented portion of the lymph nodes, that serves as an exit site for lymphatic vessels called?
The Hilum
What is the name of the tonsils located on either side of the soft palate?
The Palatine tonsils
What are the pharyngeal tonsils also called?
What is a small mass of tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel called?
a Lymph node
What are the nodes around the neck called?
Cervical lymph nodes
What is the hormone produced by the thymus gland called?
What are the macrophages found in the lungs called?
Dust cells
What is the system consisting of monocytes and macrophages, that destroy worn out blood cells, bacteria, and cancer cells called?
The Reticuloendothelium system
What is the general term for any disease of the lymph nodes?
What is the surgical removal of the spleen called?
What is elephantitis?
Inflammation of lymphatic vessels caused by a worm
What is inflammation of the lymphatic vessels known as?
What is a common form of malignant lymphoma, in which Reed-Sternberg cells are NOT present in biopsied lymph nodes called?
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
What is the word part that means gland?
Does the Lymphatic system, Deliver oxygen to the tissues, or, Absorb Fats, or, transport absorbed amino acids from the intestine to the liver, or, does it take place in Thermoregulation?
It absorbs Fats
Are red blood cells found in the Lymph?
Do lymphatic vessels transport the lymph to the tissues?
Where do the right mammary lymphatic vessels drain to?
Into the right lymphatic duct
Where does the right femoral lymphatic vessel drain to?
Into the Thoracic duct
What are the veins that receive lymph from the two terminal lymphatic vessels?
The subclavian veins
Lymph from the arm and breast pass through which node?
The axillary nodes
Of the following what is NOT a function of the spleen: Destruction of RBC, Removal of impurities, Storage of blood, Absorption of fats?
Absorption of fats
Where are the trabecula, subcapsular sinus, and hilum found?
In lymph nodes
Where do T cells develop?
In the Thymus
Are peyer patches part of the lymphatic system, GALT, and MALT?
Yes, all of them
What are the small mounds of lymphoid tissue found at the back of the tounge called?
Lingual Tonsils
Where are Kupffer cells located?
In the liver
What is Hodgkins disease?
A malignant tumor of the lymph nodes
Define adenopathy?
Any glandular disease
What are the functions of the spleen?
Designed to filter the blood, Graveyard for RBC
What would happen if the spleen was removed?
The other lymphoid tissue would take over its function.
What is the power of an organism to produce disease termed as?
What is an individuals condition or susceptability to a disease called?
How do white blood cells take in foreign material
What substance is released during the inflammatory reaction, that causes small blood vessels to dialate?
What is the mixture of leukocytes and fluid that forms in an inflamed region called?
Inflammatory Exudate
An individuals immuntiy to non-human diseases is termed as what?
Inborn Immunity
What is a foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response called?
What is a circulating protein that binds a specific antigen called?
Lymphocytes that supress the immune response are called what?
Regulatory T cells
What is the process that a T cell aquires the ability to combine with a specific antigen called?
Following exposure to an antigen, B cells differentiate in to plasma cells or what?
Memory cells
Which B cells secrete antibodies?
Plasma cells
What plasma portion are the antibodies contained in?
The gamma gobulin factor
What is a pathogen coated with antibodies that may be destroyed by a group of non specific blood protiens called?
What is immunity gained through the placenta termed?
Passive natural aquired immunity
What is an immunity that is gained following a vaccination called?
Active artificial aquired immunity
What is a solution used for immunization called?
What is an altered toxin used to induce immunity called?
A toxoid
What does the MMR vaccine protect against?
Mumps, measles, and rubella
What is a solution that contains antibodies and is administered to provde short term immunity called?
What is a normally harmless substance that induces an inappropriate immune response called?
An Allergen
What is the medical term for hives?
What is an immune reaction to a substance that is normally harmless termed?
Diseases which the immune system perceives as one's owns cells as foreign are collectively called what?
Autoimmune response
Treatment of cancer by stimulation of a patients immune system is termed what?
What is a common response to tissue transplantation called?
Rejection syndrome
The word part "tox" means what?
Of the following: natural killer cells, antibodies, or cytoxic T cells, which participates in non specific immune defenses?
Natural killer cells
Inflammatory reaction and interferon participate in what?
Non specific defenses
What substance causes the blood vessels to dialate?
What is an immunoglobulin?
An antibody
What does humoral immunity result from?
The action of plasma cells
What do macrophages participate in?
Phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and immunity
How are Tcells activated?
By the binding proteins on the macrophages called MHC receptors and antigen fragments
All processes that involve an injection result in a form of immunity called what?
Artificially acquired immunity
What is a process that results in antibody production by the recipient, induces a form of what?
Active immunity
What is used to confer passive immunity?
What is an attenuated organism?
A weakened organism
What does immunization against haemophilus influenzae type B protect children against?
What do vaccinations contains?
What might an immune serum contain?
Antibodies, Antivenins, and Anitoxins
What form of immunity is induced by administration of an immune serum?
Artificially acquired passive immunity
A sensitivity reaction in a human receiving animal antiserum is called what?
Serum sickness
What is an abnormal reactivity to ones own tissues called?
What is a cancer of the blood forming cells in bone marrow called?
Multiple myeloma
What are four classic symptoms of inflammation and a cause of each symptom?
Pain-Swelling compresses nerves, Heat- Increased blood flow, Redness-Increased blood flow, Swelling- Permeable veins
What event occurs after a B cell is exposed to its specific antigen?
B cells start making plasma cells, plasma cells start making memory T cells
What does myelotoxin mean?
Poison of the bone marrow
The movement from higher concentration to lower concentration is called what?
What is the movement of gases between the alveoli and the blood called?
External exchange of gasses
What is the membrane around the lung called?
The Pleura
What are the small sacs of air in the lungs where gasses are exchanged called
What part of the respiratory tract contains the vocal cords?
The larynx
What is the leaf shaped cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing?
The epiglottis
What is a small subdivision of a bronchus called?
A bronchiole
The ease in which one can expand the lungs and thorax is called what?
What is the active phase of normal relaxed breathing called?
What is the iron containing protein in blood called?
What is the enzyme involved in the conversion of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions called?
Carbonic Anhydrase
What is the nerve that stimulates the diaphragm called?
The phrenic nerve
What is a rise in the blood level of carbon dioxide called?
What is the amount of air moved into or out of the lungs in quiet breathing called?
The tidal volume
Rapid breathing during a race/excercise, the altered breathing pattern is termed what?
What is lower thatn normal oxygen concentration in the blood called?
What are the small tumors that form as a result of chronic sinusitis called?
What is an upper respiratory infection that is characterized by a loud barking cough and breathing difficulties called?
What is the medical term for hay fever?
Allergic Rhinitis
What does COPD stand for?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
What is the chronic disease that destroys Alveoli called?
What is the term for a collapsed lung in infants, that is caused by insufficient surfacant production?
What is a malignanat lung cancer originating in a bronchus called?
Bronchogenic Carcinoma
What is the process of removing fluid from the pleural space called?
What is the technique called that is used on a person that is not breathing and does not have a heart beat called?
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
What is a bronchoscope?
An instrument used to examine the respiratory tract and take biopsies of lung tumors
What does the word part "or/o" mean?
During which phase of respiration does the diaphragm contract?
Pulmonary Ventilation
At the lungs what diffuses into the blood and into the Alveoli?
Oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the Alveoli
What is the most superior portion of the pharynx called?
What are characteristics for the tissue of the trachea?
Epithelial, Pseudostratified, columnar
What is the Adam's apple formed by?
The thyroid cartilage
What is surrounded by cartilage rings?
The trachea
Of the following structures what is found in the nasal septum: The Vomer, Conchae, Nasopharynx
The Vomer
What is the amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs by maximum exhalation, following maximum inhalation called?
Vital capicity
In respiration what are the neck and abdominal muscels used for?
Forceful exhalation
How is most of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
In the form of bicarbonate ions
How does oxygen move from the lungs to the blood?
Where are the chemoreceptors that regulate breathing located?
In the carotid artery and the aorta
What is the substance that binds to the central chemoreceptors?
Hydrogen Ions
What does orthopena mean?
A breathing difficulty that is relieved by sitting upright
Of the following what results in the greatest increase in blood: Apnea, Tachypnea, Hyperpnea, Dyspnea
What is hypoxemia?
A deficiency of oxygen in the blood
What is the medical term for a nosebleed?
What is an example of an upper respiratory infection?
Acute Coryza
What is the fluid that accumulates in the alveoli of patients with pneumonia called?
Pneumothorax refers to accumulation where?
The pleural space
How is air or fluid removed from the pleural space?
What is an incesion into the trachea called?
What does the word part "spir/o" mean?
What would the affects of a persons breathing pattern be if there was an increase in acidity of cerebrospinal fluid
Carbon dioxide would rise, causing hypercapnia, which would trigger ventilation.
Compare and contrast Emphysema and Chronic bronchitis.
Both are COPD, Emphysema is dialation and destruction of the alveoli and chronic bronchitis is due to inflammation of the airway linings that produce excessive secretions