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188 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a specailized group of cells?
a Tissue
Which system takes in oxygen and expels carbon?
the Respitory System
What system does the skin and it's associated structures belong to?
the Integumentary System
What system does the Spinal cord belong to?
the Nervous System
The term Metabolism refers to what?
All of the catabolic and anabolic reactions that go on within the body.
What is the energy storing compound foind in cells called?
What is the fluid within the cells called?
IntraCellular fluid
What are examples of Blood and the Lymph?
ExtraCellular fluid
A state of internal balance is better known as?
Splitting the body at the middle of the ears is better know as what?
Frontal/Coronal plane
What is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?
the Diaphragm
What is metabolism defined as?
The chemical reaction needed to sustain life
Cutting the body in half at the belly button is which plane?
Transverse/Horizontal plane
The study of how the body functions is?
The study of disease is?
List the levels of organization from the most simple to the most complex.
cell, tissue, organ, system, organism.
Which system transports blood to and from the cells?
Circulatory System
Which system is comprised of bones and joints?
Skeletal System
Define Metabolism
All the life-sustaining activites that go on within the body,
Catabolism is best described as?
The break down of complex substances into a more simple compound.
Anabolism is best described as?
The use of the catabolic substances (simple compounds) to manufacture materials needed for growth.
Describe positive feedback?
When a given action promotes more of the same action.
Describe negative feedback?
Kepps a given action is reversed for the purposes of maintaining a normal set range. IE Thermostat in a house.
What term means "farther from the midline of the body"?
What term means "nearer to the midline of the body"?
Define Superior/Cranial?
Above, or higher in position
Define Inferior/Caudal?
Below or Lower
What term best describes, "Nearer to the origin of a structure"?
What term best describes, "Farther from the origin of a structure"?
Ventral/Anterior mean what?
Located toward the belly surface or front of the body.
Dorsal/Posterior mean what?
locations nearer to the back.
If you were to make a cut through the body, splitting it into two from the nose to the belly button, which view would you get?
Sagittal Plane
What does the Dorsal cavity contain?
Brain (cranial cavity) and Spinal cord (canal)
What does the Ventral cavity contain?
The Thoracic cavity, the Diaphragm, and the Abdomino-pelvic cavity (Abdominal and Pelvic cavities)
What is contained in the Thoracic cavity?
The heart, lungs, and the large blood vessles that join the heart.
What is the Diaphragm?
A muscle that separates the Thoracic cavity from the Abdominal cavity and is used for breathing.
What is the Mediastinum?
The space between the lungs, including the organs and vessels contained in that space.
What is contained in the Abdominal cavity?
The stomach, Most of the Intestine, The liver, The gallblader, The pancreas, and The spleen
What is contained in the Pelvic cavity?
The rectum, The urinary bladder, and the internal parts of the reproductinve system.
What are the 9 regions of the Abdomen?
Right Hypochondriac, Left Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Right Lumbar, Left Lumbar, Umbillical, Right Iliac (inquinal), Left Iliac (inquinal), Hypogastric
What is the atomic number based on?
The number of Protons
A negatively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom is what?
A unit formed by the union of two or more atoms is what?
A molecule
A mixture which needs to be shakes or the components will separate is what kind?
A suspension
A substance that dissolves other substances is what?
A solvent
A charged atom or group of atoms is called what?
An ion
A covalent bond is formed by what?
The sharing of electrons between elements
What is a negatively charged ino called?
Compounds that release ions in a solution are called what?
An acid is a substance that donates what to another substance?
A hydrogen ion
What is the pH of a solution based on?
Its concentration of the element hydrogen
A substance with the pH of 8.5% is said to be what?
Basic or Alkaline
Which element is the basis of organic chemistry?
All proteins, not sugars, contain which element?
A protein that catalyses reactions is called?
An enzyme
A sub-unit of an element is called what?
An atom
What element makes up the greates percentage by weight in the body?
What are the positively charged particles in the atom's nucleus called?
How do you get the atomic weight?
Add the number of Protons to the number of Neutrons
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded is what?
A mixture
A substance compoed of two or more different elements participating in a chemical bond is what?
A compound
A substance that Dissolves in another substance is called what?
A solute
A non separating suspension can be described as what?
A mixture in which the components remain evenly distributed is what?
A solution
What does a buffer do?
Maintains a constant pH of a solution
Lipids are what?
Fats and Cholesterol
Proteins are complex molecules composed of what?
Amino acids
All enzymes are what?
What does a hydrophobic substance do?
Repels water
A substance ending with the suffix "ase" is most likely what?
A protein
List and describe two uses of radioisotopes.
Radiation therapy: penetrates and destroys cancerous tissues
Diagnosis: X-Ray's
What are 3 characteristics of organic compounds?
All contain carbon, Big molecules, found in living organisims
Name three types of carbohydrates and an example of each.
Monosaccharides, Glucose;
Disaccharides, Table sugar;
Polysaccharides, Starch
The substance that fills the cell FROM the plasma membrane TO the nuclear membrance is called what?
What is a flagellum?
A long whip like projection from the cell used in locomotion.
Define Cilia.
Small hair-like projections from the cell
Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?
The large organelleor "control center" of the cell is called what?
Name it's pair for DNA:
Name it's pair for DNA:
Name it's pair for RNA:
The substance that makes up genes is what?
The process of DNA to RNA is known as what?
The process from RNA to Proteins is known as what?
The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is what?
The process by which specialized cells engulf large particles is what?
The passage of a solution through a membrane under mechanical force is?
The peeriod between one cell division and the next is?
A solution with that has a concentration lower than the fluid within the cell is?
What is the percentage of salt in normal saline solution?
What would happen to a cell placed in a Hypotonic solution?
It will swell/burst
What is a mutation?
A chaned n the genetic material of a cell
Risk factor is defined as?
A personal characteristic or lifestyle habit that increases one's chances of getting cancer
What is the metric unit used for microscopic measurements?
What type of Microscope has the highest magnification?
Transmission electron microscope
What are the major lipids foind in the plasma membrane?
Phospholipids and Cholesterol
What do channel proteins in the plasma membrane do?
Allow substances to enter or leave
What do Transporter proteins in the plasma membrane do?
Shuttle substances from one side to the other
What are receptor proteins found in the plasma membrane?
They are points of attachments for materials coming to tje cell in the blood or tissue fluid
What are enzymes found in the plasma membrane?
Participates in reactions of the membrane
What are linker proteins in the plasma membrane?
Give structure to the membrane and attach cells to other cells
What are cell identity marker proteins found in the plasma membrane?
Unique proteins to a persons cell
What is the small body in the nucleus that make ribosomes?
What is cytosol?
The liquid part of the cytoplasm.
What is cytoplasm?
The material that fills the cell from the nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane
what is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?
Network of membranes within the cytoplasm
What does Rough ER do?
Sorts proteins and forms them into more complex compunds
What does Smooth ER do?
Lipid synthesis
What are ribosomes?
Small bodies in the Cytoplasm that manufacture proteins
What is the purpose of Mitochondria (Large Organelles with folded membranes)?
Converts energy from nutrients into ATP.
What is the purpose of the Golgi Apparatus?
Sorts, modify's and packages the proteins for export from the cell
What do Lysosomes contain?
Digestive Enzymes.
What do Peroxisomes do?
Enzymes that destroy harmful substances produced in metabolism
What do Vesicles do?
They are small bubbles used for storage
The rod-shaped bodies in the nucleus, Centrioles, do what?
Help separate the chromosomes during cell division
What is a cilia?
Hairlike projections that create movement of fluids around the cell
What is a flagellum?
A long whiplike extension from the cell
What are the three units of a nucleotide?
Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogen
What does the "m" in mRNA mean?
What does the "r" in rRNA mean?
What does the "t" in tRNA mean?
DNA to RNA is known as what process?
RNA to Protein is known as what process?
What is the order of the stages in Mitosis?
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in prophase?
Chromosome coils and the centrioles begin to separate
What happens in Metaphase?
The chromosome lines up
What happens in Anaphase?
The chromosomes separate and begin to move toward the opposite ends of the cell
What happens in Telophase?
Separated chromosomes become two new nuclei.
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
What is Osmosis?
The diffusion of water through a semi-permiable membrane
What is Filtration?
The passage of water containing dissolved materials through a membrane as a result of mechanical force
What is Facilitated diffusion?
Movement of materials from a Lower concentration to a Higher concentration using transporters to move the material at a faster rate
Endocytosis is a term that describes movement of material INTO cells. What are two examples?
Phagocytosis - Membrane engulfs a particle, Pinocytosis - Membrane engulfs a droplet of fluid (cell drinking)
Movement of a material OUT of a cell is?
What is an Isotonic solution?
Has THE SAME concentration of dissolved substances as the fluid in the cell
What is a Hypotonic solution?
Has a LOWER concentration of dissolved substances as the fluid in the cell (cell takes in water, swells and may burst)
What is an Hyperotonic solution?
Has a HIGHER concentration of dissolved substances as the fluid in the cell (cell looses water and shrinks)
What are the functions of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane?
Cell to cell attachment, and cell recognition
What are two organelles involved in protein secretion and their contributions to the process?
Golgi appartus, used for transportation and storage; ER, sorts proteins and forms them into more complex compounds
List one similarity and one difference of Diffusion and Facilitated diffusion?
Both move from higher to lower concentration gradient, but one uses internal energy and the other uses transporters
Name the 6 types of membrane proteins and their functions?
1. Channels: passage for substances, 2. Transporters: moves substances, 3. receptors: attachment of substances, 4. enzymes: reactions at the membrane, 5. Linkers: give structure to the membrane, 6. cell identity markers: Unique proteins
What type of tissue is Osseous?
The study of tissues is known as what?
Name the four main groups of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
What are the 9 types of Epithelial tissue?
1.simple squamous, 2.simple cuboidal, 3.simple columnar, 4. stratified squamous, 5. stratified cuboidal, 6. stratified coulmnar, 7. Transitional epithelium, 8. Glandular epithelium, 9. Pseudo-stratified
What are 4 types of Connective tissue?
1. Liquid, 2. Soft-Connective, 3. Fiberous-Connective, 4. Hard-Connective
What are the 3 types of Muscle tissue?
1. Skeletal muscle tissue, 2. Smooth muscle tissue, 3. Cardiac muscle tissue
A term that describes, "long, narrow" epithelial cells, is what?
A term that describes, "flat, irregular" epithelial cells, is what?
What is Mucus?
A stickey protective fluid secrteted by some epithelial cells.
What is Meylin?
The fatty substance that insulates and protects some nerve cell fibers
What type of connective tissue stores fat?
What is collagen?
A flexible white protein that makes up many fibers in connective tissue
What layer of a serous membrane lines body cavities or sac?
The parietal layer
What layer of a serous membrane lines the Thoracic cavity and each lung?
The Pleurae
What layer of a serous membrane forms a sac that encloses the heart?
The Serous Pericardium
What layer of a serous membrane lines the walls of the abdominal cavities, covers organs, and forms protective structures within the abdomen?
The Peritoneum
Describe Skeletal muscle.
Voluntary, moves the skeleton
Describe Cardiac muscle.
Forms the main parts of the heart
Describe Smooth muscle.
Involuntary muscle, forms the organs
What type of connective tissue covers and protects the skeletal muscles?
Deep Fascia
What is a capsul?
A layer of dense connective tissue around an organ
What is a tendon?
A cord of connective tissue that joins a muscle to a bone
A tumor that spreads to other tissues is called?
What is a Lipoma?
A benign tumor of adipose tissue
What is a tumor/neoplasm?
Any abnormal growth of cells
What is the Meninges?
Layers of membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
What are synovial membranes?
connective tissues that line joint cavities
What does fascia refer to?
Fibrous bands or sheets that support organs and hold them in place
What is Superficial fascia
Tissue that underlies the skin and contains adipose tissue (fat) that insulates the body
What is the medical process of classifying a tumor based on size and extent of invasion called?
What is Immunotherapy?
A cancer treatment that uses substances to stimulate the immune system
The use of X-Rays to produce cross-sectional pictures of the body parts is what?
CT (Computed Tomography)
Define Radiography
The use of x-rays to obtain images of internal structures
What does pseudo mean?
What are the support cells of the nervous system called?
What are the fibers of the neuron called?
Axons and dendrites
What is atrophy?
The wasting of a tissue due to a decrease in cell number
Fibers that conduct a nerve impules TOWARD a neuron cell body are?
Fibers that conduct a nerve impules AWAY from a neuron cell body are?
Endocrine glands secrete what?
What type of tissue can strech to accomplish its function?
Transitional epithelium
Loose connective tissue is also referred as?
What type of membrane is the Plurae?
Serous membrane
Name five signs of cancer.
Bleeding, non-healing, pain, weight loss, cough
What are three traditional types of cancer removal
1. Surgical: mass removed, 2. Radiation: small amounts to an organ, 3. Chemo: Drugs to attack the cancer
Why is blood considered to be connective tissue?
Because connective tissue is the supporting fabric of all parts of the body and blood belongs to the Matrix
The three types of epithelial membranes are what?
1.Serous (peritoneum), 2.Mucous (covers internal organs), 3.Cutaneous (skin)