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201 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are receptors?
Hormones that attach to plasma membrane proteins
What are the building blocks of protein hormones called?
Amino Acids
What does the ACTH act on?
The adrenal cortex
What is an antidiuretic hormone ADH?
A hormone from the posterior pituitary, that is involved in water balance
What is the growth hormone also known as?
Somatotropin
What produces the hormone melatonin?
The pineal gland
What hormone is secreted by the pancreatic islets that lowers the blood sugar?
Insulin
What is aldosterone?
A hormone from the adrenal cortex that helps regulate sodium and potassium balance
What is the hormone that is secreted from the thymus that promotes T cell growth?
Thymosin
What hormone is secreted by the pancreatic islets that raises the blood sugar?
Glucagon
A portal system links the hypothalamus to what?
The anterior pituitary glands
Cretinism results from what?
The lack of Thyroxine in children
What disease results in the lack of insulin?
Diabetes Mellitus
What is goiter?
Enlargement of the thyroid gland
What disease results from underactivity of the adrenal cortex?
Addison disease
What is Acromegaly?
The disorder that results from excess growth hormones in an adult
Excess secretion of cortisol causes what?
Cushing syndrome
What is Erythropoietin?
The hormone secreted from the kidneys that increases RBC synthesis
What hormone can be used to induce labor?
Oxytocin
Excess stress can inhibit the immune system due to the actions of what hormone?
Cortisol
Increased blood calcium levels results in what?
Increased calcitonin and decreased parathyroid hormone
What are the large glands located on both sides of the larynx?
The thyroid glands
Where are the islets of langerhans located?
The pancreas
What effect would a large increase in cortisol have on glaucagon and insulin secretion?
Insulin would be increased and glaucagon would be decreased
What hormone opposes the effects of the parathyroid hormone?
Calcitonin
Where is cortisol produced?
The adrenal cortex
What is a gonadotropic hormone?
Luteinizing hormone
Where is ADH and Oxytocin produced?
In the hypothalamus
What are the target tissues for Oxytocin
The uterus and breasts
Which gland produces calcitonin?
The thyroid gland
What is a mineralocorticoid?
Aldosterone
What is the stalk that connects the hypothalamus and pituitary gland called?
The infundibulum
What does diabetes insipidus result from?
A lack of antidiuretic hormone
Someone that suffers from high blood sugar, frequent urination, and thirst will most likely be diagnosed as what?
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Deficiency of thyroxine in an adult can result in what?
Myxedema
What are the local hormones that are produced by most body tissues?
Prostaglandins
What does aldestrone do?
It decreases sodium and increases blood pressure
What is a hormone that increases sodium and lowers blood pressure called?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
What is the best treatment for anaphylaxis?
Epinephrine
What do oral contraceptives contain?
Estrogen and Progesterone
What does the suffix
"-poiesis" mean
forming
What is a word ending for a hormone that controls another gland?
tropin
What is nephromegaly?
Enlargement of the kidney
Proteins in the blood that bind to antogens are called what?
Antibodies
What substance makes up more than 50% of the blood plasma?
Water
What element is needed for the formation of hemoglobin?
Iron
The cells that give rise to all blood cells are found where?
In red bone marrow
Red blood cells are also called what?
Erythrocytes
What are the cell fragments that are invilved in hemostasis called?
Platelets
What protein carries oxygen in RBCs?
Hemaglobin
What are the most numerous blood cells called?
Erythrocytes RBCs
What do activated lymphocytes that produce antibodies called?
Plasma cells
How do thrombocytes first assist in hemostasis?
By forming a platelet plug
What does the contraction of smooth muscles in the wall of a blood vessel cause?
Vasoconstriction
What is an anticoagulant?
A substance that inhibits the formation of a blood clot
What is the insoluablee protein that forms a blood clot called?
Fibrin
What is the sceintific term for excessive bleeding?
Hemorrhage
What is the rupture of red blood cells called?
HEMOLYSIS
The disease caused by the lack of vitamin B12 called?
Pernicious Anemia
What disease results from the destruction of red bone marrow?
Aplastic anemia
What cancer results in the abnormal production of white blood cells?
Leukemia
What is an inherited disease that results from a defect in clotting factor VIII?
Hemophelia
What is the average total volume of blood in the body?
5 liters
What is the most abundant protein in plasma?
Albumin
What is the main carbohydrate in plasma?
Glucose
What is a system of enzymes that is used to combat pathogens called?
A compliment
Which blood cell lacks a nucleus?
Erythrocytes
What cell would be capable of protein synthesis?
Neutrophils
Platelets are derived from large bone marrow cells called what?
Megakaryocytes
Why would the level of erythropoietin production rise?
As a consequence of hemorrhage
What do macrophages develop from?
Monocytes
What is a band cell?
An immature neutrophil
What is the most abundant type of leukocyte?
Neutrophils
What are two phagocytes?
Macrophages and neutrophils
What is the prevention of blood loss called?
Hemostasis
What is agglutination?
The clumping of red cells when they are mixed with matching antiserum
What does the gamma globulin fraction of the plasma contain?
Antibodies
What is an inherited hemolytic form of anemia called?
Sickle cell anemia
What is a low white blood cell count called?
Leukopenia
Where does myelogeneous leukemia arise?
In red bone marrow
What is the BUN test used for?
Nitrogenous waste
What is a person with a hematocrit of 33% suffering from?
Anemia
What is a person with a red cell count of 7million cells suffering from?
Polycythemia
What is a person suffering from if they have a red cell count of 2000 cells?
Leukopenia
What is an estimation of the percentage of each white blood cell type in a smear called?
Differential white count
What is polycythemia?
An excess of red blood cells due to a bone marrow abnormality
What are three functions of blood and name an element involved in each function
1. Regulation; pH, 2. Protection; Antibodies, 3. Transportation; Oxygen
Define Hemostasis
The process that prevents blood loss
What are the three steps of hemostasis?
Contraction, Formation of a platelet plug, blood clot
How are plasma and serum similar and different?
They both have no formed elements, Plasma has clotting factors, serum has no clotting factors
What is the thick muscular layer of the heart wall called?
Myocardium
What is the heart wall layer that is part of the pericardium?
The epicardium
What is the space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium called?
Pericardial cavity
The right side of the heart pumps blood through what circut?
The pulmonary circut
Which side of the heart pumps blood over longer distances?
The left side
What are the lower chambers of the heart called?
Ventricles
How are the two upper chambers of the heart seprated?
By the interatrial septum
What is the right atrioventricular valve also known as?
The tricuspid valve
The aortic and semilunar valves are also known as what?
Semilunar valves
Where are the intercalated disks found in the heart?
In the Myocardium
Which valve is the exit of the right ventricle?
The pulmonary valve
What is the coronary sinus?
The dialated valve that returns blood from the coronary circulation to the right atrium
What is the coronary circulation?
The blood supply to the myocardium
The ventricles contract during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
Systole
Stroke Volume + Heart Rate = What?
The cardiac output
What are the conducting cells in the heart that set the rate called?
Nodese
How do impulses travel from the SA node to the AV node?
Internodal pathways
Tachycardia could result from the activation of which division of the ANS?
The sympathetic
The heart rate is slowed down by which division of the ANS?
The parasympathetic
What is the term for an abnormally slow heart rate?
Bradycardia
What is the term for an abnormally fast heart rate?
Tachycardia
The sound heard at the beginning of the ventricular systole is described as?
Lubb
What is the heart sound heard from normal ventricular filling called?
A functional murmur
How does atrial septal defect occur?
When the foramen ovale fails to close after birth
What is the result of inflammation of the serous membrane surrounding the heart?
Pericarditis
What is the medical term for a heart attack?
Myocardial Infarction
What gender is most likely to develop heart disease until middle age?
Male
What is the most simple way to detect a heart murmur?
With a stethoscope
How are electrical changes in the heart detected?
By an Electrocardiograph
What is a plant derived substance, that slows and strenghtens heart muscle contractions?
Digitalis
What is the small tube thats inserted into a coronart artery to prevent repeated blockage called?
A stent
What does the word part "isch-" mean?
Suppression
What is endocarditis
Inflammation of the epithelial lining of the heart
What is the outtermost layer of the heart wall called?
The epicardium
What is the part of the heart that is capable of generating the largest force?
The left ventricle
Which chamber receives it's blood from the lungs?
The left atrium
How does the left ventricle receive its blood?
From the left atrium
What are the threads that attach the valve flaps to the ventricle walls called?
Chordae Tendineae
Which valve prevents blood from re-entering the left ventricle?
The aortic valve
Which valves are the semilunar valves?
The aortic and pulmonary valves
The coronary sinus collects blood from where?
The myocardium
What are the first vessels that branch off of the aorta?
Coronary arteries
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle, with each contraction is called what?
Stroke Volume
When are the atrioventricular valves closed?
During the entire period os ventricular systole
When does atrial systole occur?
When the atria are contracting
What is the order that impulses travel through the heart?
SA node, Internodal pathway, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinjie fibers
What is the normal pacemaker of the heart?
The SA node
Activation of the parasympathetic system does what to the heart beat?
Decreases the heart beat
A heart beating 50 times a minute is described as what?
Bradycardia
The second sound of the heart, dubb, is caused from what?
The closing of the semilunar valves
What is the ductus arteriosus?
A vessel present in the fetus
What is a congenital narrowing of the aortic arch called?
Coarctation
What is the area damaged by a heart attack called?
Infarct
Which technique is used to visualize structures?
Fluroscope
What is angioplasty used for?
To open restricted arteries
What are beta-adrenginic blocking agents used for?
To reduce the rate and strength of cardiac contractions
What does the word part "scler/o" mean
Hard
Why is the heart described as double pump?
Due to 2 different circuts pulmonary and systemic
Based on word parts, what does bradyesthesia mean
Slow preception
If a myocardial infarction incapacitates the sinoatrial node, and the atrioventricular node is now acting as the pacemaker, how will the heart beat differ from normal?
Slower than normal; Bradycardia. Could be corrected with an artificial pacemaker
What is the difference between a myocardial infarction and angina pectoris?
Mycardial Infarction is caused by coronary thrombrosis and angina pectoris is inadequet blood flow to the heart
What does angiogenesis mean?
Angio = blood vessels
Genesis = Formation
Formation of blood vessels
What is any vessel that carries blood away from the heart called?
An artery
What are the microscopic vessels that allow for exchanges between the blood and body cells called?
Capillaries
What is a small artery called?
Arteriole
What is the most inferior portion of the aorta called?
The abdominal aorta
What are the vessels that supply blood to the heart called?
Coronary arteries
What are the vessels that supply blood to the diaphragm called?
Phrenic arteries
What is the first branch of the subclavian artery?
The vertebral artery
A communication between two vessels is called what?
Anastomosis
What does the union of the radial and the ulnar arteries in the hand form?
The superficial palmar arches
What is the longest vein in the body?
The great saphenous vein
Which vein drains the areas supplied by the carotid arteries
The jugglar veins
What is the large vein that drains the upper part of the body, and empties into the right atrium?
The superior vena cava
What does the lumbar vein drain into?
The Inferior vena cava
Which vein does the azygos drain into?
The superior vena cava
What is a large channel that drains deoxygenated blood called?
A sinus
What is the dialated channel that drains the opthalmic veins called?
The cavernous sinus
What is a circulatory pathway that carries blood to a secondary capillary bed before it returns to the heart called?
A portal system
Where does the splenic vein drain into?
The hepatic portal system
How is fluid drawn into the capillaries?
Osmotic pressure
What is a decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel called?
Vasoconstriction
What area of the brain regulates arteriolar diameter?
The vasomotor center
What are the flaps in the veins that ensure one-way flow of blood called?
Valves
What are the two major determinants of blood pressure?
Peripheral resistance and cardiac output
What is an instrument used to manually measure blood pressure?
Syphgmomanometer
Which blood pressure occurs during the heart muscle relaxation?
Diastolic pressure
What is the sceintific term for high blood pressure?
Hypertension
What is the enzyme that is produced in the kidneys called?
Renin
What is hardening of the arteries technically known as?
Arteriosclerosis
What is a weakened area of a blood vessel wall that bulges outwards called?
An aneurysm
What aretery would you apply pressure to in order to stop a bleeding ear?
The temporal artery
What is shock resulting from significant decrease in blood volume?
Hypovolemia
What does the word part "phren/o" refer to?
Diaphragm
A vessel with three distinct layers one of which is a thick muscular layer, having the layers separated by extensive elastic tissue is most likely what kind of vessel?
An artery
What blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
Capillaries
What do the carotid arteries supply blood to?
The head
Which vessel supplies blood to the intestine?
The mesenteric
When the aorta ends what does it branch into?
The common iliac arteries
What artery becomes the femoral artery?
The external iliac
What are branches of the abdominal aorta?
The phrenic, renal and ovarian arteris
What is the superficial palmar arch formed by?
The union of the radial and ulnar arteries
Where are the cephalic, basilic, and median cubitial veins located?
In the arm
What forms the brachiocephalic vein?
The union of the subclavian and the jugular veins
What vein drains blood from the chest wall?
The azygous vein
What does the presence of albumin in capillary result in?
Osmotic pressure, drawing fluid into the capillaries
What is the main process involved in capillary exchange?
Diffusion
What happens if the precapillary sphincter is dialated?
More blood will flow into a capillary bed
What is high blood pressure that has no apparent medical cause called?
Essential hypertension
What is a clot that is loose and floats called?
An embolus
What is phlebitis?
Inflammation of a vein