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75 Cards in this Set

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Caravan trading center; pilgrimage center; location of Kaaba stone
-lots of ideas, intellectual center, social upheaval
-no middle class in city (rich & poor divided)
-where Mohammad founded the religion
Mecca
City where Mohammad founded the Islamic political movement
Medina
Word of God; transcript of book that exists in heaven in Arabic
Quran
Means submit
Islam
A forum where people spoke their minds; used to justify Islam as being compatible with democracy
Majlis
- Journey to Medina in 622 AD
- 1st year of Muslim caledar
- Muslim year is on lunar system
-11 days shorter than Roman calendar
Hijhra
bazaar (arabic word)
Suq
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
1. shahada (testimony/profession of faith)
2. prayer (5 X a day)
3. zakat (alms)
4. Ramadan (month of fasting)
5. hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
"There is not God but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet."
-Islamic testimony/profession of faith
Shahada (pillar)
5 times a day, always begins with "In name of God," most important day = Friday @ noon
Prayer (pillar)
alms; 2.5% of wealth yearly to the poor
zakat (pillar)
Month of fasting; can miss a day if sick or traveling
Ramadan (pillar)
Pilgrimage to Mecca
-reinforces equality of all Muslims before God; end of month is Eid; the day that ruler traditionally release a criminal
Hajj (pillar)
hajji=person going on the pilgrimage
Consultations; used to justify Islam as compatible with democracy
shura
Collective transnational aspect of religion; global Islamic community
Umma
Common Islamic law; changed in the 90s, began to fade away; now is small source, not law of land; Saudis & Taliban in Afghanistan follow it as law of the land
Shariah
Deep loyalty to an ethnic group, religion, homeland, leader or set of institutions
nationalism
Series of reforms during the Ottoman Empire
- combated European dominance
-shift from millet system toward an individual id instead of a collective id
Tanzimat
Islamic religious movements in Saudi Arabia
-founded in 18th century by Abd al-Wahhab
-fundamentalist sect in Saudi Arabia; Unitarian movement
Wahhabi movement
Christians in Lebanon
Mironites
Group stemmed from army that killed Ali
-located in Oman
Kharijites
Arabic word for school
madrassa
Religious endowment made when someone dies to help a school or hospital
waqf
Cultural boundaries
nation
Political boundaries
state
States that signed treaties with Britain
Trucial states
Period in history before Islam; period of ignorance
Jahiliyya
1915-1916, between Britist General McMahon and Sharif Hussein
-agreement that said Arabs would achieve independence if Arabs revolted against Ottomans; Brits didn't come through = Arabs felt betrayed
McMahon Correspondence
(1915-1916)
Promise from British foreign secretary Balfour to British Zionist named Rothschild
-Jewish homeland promised safeguard region against non-Jews
Balfour Declaration
Secret agreement between Brits & French to divide Ottoman Empire and not give Jews homeland as previously promised
-gave France Levant region
-Britain got Iraq & Jordan
Sykes-Picot Agreement
Currently Israel, Gaza, West Bank, Syria, Jordan
Levant
Populist movement in Egypt
Wafd
1920, 1st of many uprisings in Iraq against Brits
-Fatwa issued
-first time Sunnis, Shiites, tribes, & cities joined together as one
-as result, Brits had to change way they ruled; created cooperative gov't with an Arab admin
The Great Revolution (1920)
Religious ruling that declared jihad (against Brits in 1920)
Fatwa
Shiite type of religious scholar
mujlahib
Non-Islamic communities protected under Islamic law
Djimmi
Done in 1921 where Faisal was made king of Syria (& later Iraq) and Abdullah was made king of Trans-Jordan
Cairo Conference
Established in 1925, 75% owned by British and 25% owned by France
-Controlled this company for 75 years
-Iraqis didn't receive any of the profits
Iraq Petroleum Company
US commission that traveled to Syria to ask the people who they wanted as rules between the British and the nationalists
-Occurred after WWI
The King-Crane Commission
200 Palestines killed after an armistice was declared
-caused 50,000 Palestinians to flee the territory
Deir Yassin
Holy shrine in Mecca that Muslims worship and believe was first put into place by Abraham to honor Allah
Kaaba
Arab tribe which Mohammad belonged to; resisted the Islamic movement and confronted Mohammad
Quraish
Mountainous region of Arabia's Red Sea coast
Hijaz
Representatives of the Prophet
Caliphs
System of ruling that collected taxes but allowed minorities to rule themselves
millet system
Done by a muezzin, 5 times a day after purity
Call to prayer
8 military expeditions, attempt to liberate Jerusalem, changed Muslim attitude towards west
The Crusades
chapters of the Koran
sura
Prophet Mohammad's personal utterances that were not direct recitations of God's word
-But are thought to be formed from prophet's divine inspiration
-Not in the Koran
Hadith
The process of Shariah interpretation used by Muslim Brotherhood to reapply values of the past to problems of the present
ijtihad
Religous war
jihad
The messiah of Islam expected to come to earth in end days to lead faithful in war against infidel (Shiites believe this)
The Mahdi
Tower in Mosque where call to prayer takes place
Minaret
Arab tribe that founded the traded settlement of Mecca and the hijaz, mountain region at juncture of many important trade routes
The Quraish
The first 4 caliphs that ruled after Mohammad's death.
-the rightly guided caliphs
The Rashidun
Islamic law, was common law until 19th century when it began to fade away
-Basis of Muslim social & legal code from the Koran and Hadith
Shariah
Shiites believe there are 12 caliphs in occultation, feel Ali's children should succeed him
Twelver Shiism
Shiite religious authority - learned in the law
Ulama (ulema)
The constituency, the group of beliefs the prophet is sent to
-Now means that the beliefs of Islam are a community in themselves
The Umma(ummah)
1. First against Ottomans (1916-1918)
-part of Hussein-McMahon correspondence
-marked beginning of dismemberment of Ottoman empire
-ushered in close relations b/tw Brits & the rules of Trans-jordan and parts of Arabia including Iraq
-come to be ruled by the Hashemite
2. Second against Brits in Palestine
-Brits turn responsibility of mandate over the UN
-Result=Brits oppression of Palestines increases
The Arab Revolt(s)
Christians in Egypt
Copts
Jewish terrorist group operating in Palestine from 1931-1948
Irgun
Vast army/class of Ottomans, slaves obtained as children and trained in schools
Janissaries
European authority to rule after WWI
France- Syria, Lebanon
Brits- Egypt, Iraq, Trans-Jordan
The Mandates
The opposite of American melting pot; lots of subcultures that don't melt together but can exist together; interdependence b/tw communities
Mosaic society
Egypt
-return to the roots of Islam to create a more just & decent society
-fundamentalist ideology w/ not distinction b/tw politics & religion
-opposed to Nasser
-created resistance
-opposed to the support of Israel
-used the itjihad interpretation of Shariah
The Muslim Brotherhood
1937, divide Palestine and give Arabs & Israelis each a state
-Arabs rejected this, saw Israelis as immigrants who were not entitled to Palestinian lands
The Peel Commission
Brits didn't seem interested in independence of Iraq instead wanted a puppet gov't
-New gov't set up under a commission under Percy Cox
The San Remo Conference
Groups that maintain identity across borders
Transnational (supra-state) identities
after 1949,this was annexed by King Abdul into part of Jordan and was never excepted by international community; then occupied by Israel as a result of the 1967 war
The West Bank
Idea of Jewish homeland in Palestine
Zionist/Zionism
Located in Damascus and spread, but was eventually overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate
Ummayyid Caliphate
Located in Baghdad and existed from 750 to 1258 AD
-overthrown by the Mongols
Abbasid Caliphate
Spread almost to Vienna and also to Spain
Mongols
Last political force to hold the Middle east together. Rose in the 15th century with the fall of Constantinople and it was largely democratic
-Sunni-dominated Empire
-18th century, weakened
-after WWI, borders began to shape
Ottoman Empire