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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proliferate
Multiply
Pathogenic
Disease producing
Infection
An invasion of body tissue by pathogenic microorganisms which proliferate and can cause damage to the tissue and possible loss of function (local cellular injury, secretion of toxin, or antigen-antibody reaction in the host)
Disease
A condition of abnormal function involving any structure, part, or system of the organism
Resident flora
Microorganisms that do not cause disease
Colonization
The process by which strains of microorganisms may grow and multiply, but do not cause disease(resident flora)
Definition of etiology
Cause
Etiology of infection
Bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites(includes Protozoa)
Source of transmission of infection
Communicable-infectious(community acquired) or nosocomial(HAI)
HAI
Healthcare associated infection; (AKA nosocomial); acquired during delivery of health care
Most common site of HAI
Urinary tract
Most common organisms of HAI
E. coli, S. aureus, enterococci
Price of HAI
Costly, insurances won't pay for it
Contributing factors of HAI's & what is the major cause
Major cause is insufficient hand washing. Other contributing factors are iatrogenic & compromised host defenses
Iatrogenic
Caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures
MRSA
(CAMRSA); methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
VRSA
Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus
VRE
Vancomycin resistant enterococcus
PRSP
Penicillin resistant streptococcal pneumonia
MDRTB
Multi-drug resistant TB
Resistant microbes lead to...
Suprainfections
Susceptibility of risk for infection is influenced by...
Age, heredity, stress, nutritional status, immunization status, personal habits, medical treatments and therapies, pre-existing diseases, recent illnesses or surgery, weakened defense systems, cultural practices, environmental factors
What age groups are most at risk for infection and why?
Newborns (due to an immature immune system) and the elderly (deteriorating immune system, alterations in structure and function of skin, urinary tract & lungs, and depletion of lymphoid tissue, decreased T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes
What does heredity have to do with a person's risk for infection?
Certain inherited conditions impair the individual's response to infection
What does stress have to do with risk for infection?
High level of stress can decrease resistance to infection
What does nutritional status have to do with risk for infection?
Antibodies are proteins, poor intake of foods containing proteins decreases defenses against infection & impairs wound healing. Need for calories & protein increases.
What does immunization status have to do with risk for infection?
Newborns get passive immunity for 3 months from mother along with artificial vaccines at specific intervals
What do personal habits have to do with risk for infection?
Smoking inhibits ciliary action & depletes vitamin C, alcohol( ETOH) ingestion decreases effectiveness of antibiotics & may result in poor nutritional choices, risky sexual behavior could lead to HIV, hepatitis B, etc.
What do medical treatments and therapies have to do with risk for infection?
Certain medications, invasive procedures, radiation, etc make you more susceptible to infections
What kind of pre-existing diseases make you more susceptible to infections?
Chronic illnesses, cancer, diabetes, etc.
What does a weakened defense system have to do with risk for infection?
Can be nonspecific (skin, mucosal membranes, "free-flowing" fluids like urine, or can be specific, such as your immune system
What are the body's nonspecific host defenses?
Skin, protective mechanisms, inflammatory response & fever
What is the body's specific host defense
The immune system
The body's #1 defense
Intact skin & mucous membranes
What are the body's protective mechanisms
Found in orifices, body structures, phagocytosis, cilia, etc.
What is the body's inflammatory response? What about in the elderly?
It's an adaptive response to neutralize pathogens and repair body cells. "-itis" is the suffix implying inflammation. Characterized as pain, swelling (edema), redness, heat, impaired function. Inflammatory response may be delayed in the elderly-no redness, swelling, fever but may have fatigue, confusion, disorientation, agitation, incontinence, lethargy.
What is the function of fever
It stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies & T-cells. It can be beneficial.
What is the definition of immunity
A complex, biochemical response that resists infection
What are the functions of the immune system?
1. Recognizes "foreign" invading protein-antigens(bacteria, virus, etc.)
2. Stimulates production of antibodies to destroy the "invaders"
3. Constantly surveys the body to maintain homeostasis. Removes old/aging cells, destroys mutated cells & looks for invaders
What are the types of immunity
Antibody mediated & cell mediated
What is an considered an official fever
100.4 degrees F or higher
What types of cells are involved in antibody mediated immunity
B cell lymphocytes
What are other names for antibody mediated immunity
Humoral, circulating, acquired
What are the types of antibody mediated immunity
Active & passive
What is active antibody mediated immunity
When the host produces it's own antibodies
What is passive antibody mediated immunity
When the host receives antibodies
What are the types of active antibody mediated immunity
1. Natural exposure to antigens like through an infection (life long)
2. Artificial antigens given via vaccines (many years, may need booster)
What are the types of passive antibody mediated immunity
1. Natural source-nursing mother(6 months-1year)
2. Artificial source-injection of an immune serum(2-3weeks)
What cells are involved in cell mediated immunity
T cell lymphocytes
What are other names for cell mediated immunity
Cellular
Can cell mediated immunity be given
No
What causes a decrease in cell mediated immunity
Malnutrition
What are the body's responses to infection
Localized response and systemic response
What are the 5 cardinal signs of the body's localized response to infection
Hyperemia(redness due to blood rushing to the area), edema(swelling), heat (due to increased blood flow in the area), pain, impaired or loss of function, possible exudate(drainage) in open wounds
What are the 5 cardinal signs of the body's systemic response to infection
Fever, increased pulse & respiratory rate if fever is high, malaise (feeling of weakness, discomfort), anorexia (loss of appetite), nausea, vomiting, lymphadenopathy- enlarged, tender lymph nodes
What laboratory data will show if there is an infection
Elevated WBC(leukocytes). Normal is 4500-11000 per ml; elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR or sed rate). The RBC's settle more rapidly in the presence of the inflammatory process; positive cultures (culture urine, blood, sputum, wound, iv tips, etc).
What are the stages of the infectious process
Incubation period, prodromal period, illness period, convalescent period
Describe the incubation period
No signs or symptoms, period between invasion of the microorganism and before the first sign of disease. Time varies with the illness(days, weeks, months, years)
acquired immunity
one of the 2 major types of immunity. aka passive immunity, when the host receives natural(from a nursing mother) or artificial(from an injection of immune serum) antibodies produced by another source
active immunity
one of the 2 major types of immunity. When the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural antigens (infectious microorganisms) or artificial antigens(vaccines).
antibody
aka immunoglobulins. part of the body's plasma proteins
antigen
a substance that induces a state of sensitivity or immune responsiveness (immunity).
antiseptics
agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
asepsis
the freedom from disease-causing microorganisms
blood-borne pathogens
those microorganisms carried in blood & body fluids that are capable of infecting other persons with serious & difficult to treat viral infections, such as hep b, hep c, & hiv.
biohazard
1. A biological agent, such as an infectious microorganism, or a condition that constitutes a threat to humans, especially in biological research or experimentation.
2. The potential danger, risk, or harm from exposure to such an agent or condition.
cultures
labratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
disinfectants
agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate. RBC's normally settle slowly, but the rate increases in the presence of an inflammatory process
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
Illness period
1 of the 4 stages of the infectious process. The acute phase, marked by signs & symptoms that are specific to the type of infection(strep throat manifested by sore throat, mumps by earache, carotid & salivary gland swelling). Fever is often present.