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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the entry and multiplication of a pathogen in the tissues of a host?
if the pathogen can be transmitted from on person to another it is considered?
communicable or contagious
E. coli is commonly found?
What causes gastroenteritis and UTI?
E. coli
Where is S.aureus found?
Skin, hair, anterior nares
S. aureus can cause?
wound infection
food poisoining
where is mycobacterium tuberculosis found?
can cause TB
Name 3 common viruses and their location to be found?
Hep A: feces
Hep B: blood and body fluids
HIV: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions
What does Fungi-Aspergillus cause? where is it found?
1.Aspergillosis, pna,sepsis
2. soil, dust, mouth, skin, colon, and genital tract.
What does candida albicans cause? where is it found?
1. Pna, sepsis
2. mouth, colon, skin, genital tract.
What does protozoa-plasmodium flaciparum cause? where is it found?
1. malaria
2. blood
What does organisms require to thrive? 2. oxygen 3.water(moisture) 4. temp (35 c or 95 f) 5. Ph 5-8 6. light(dark)
Name the 6 links of chain of infection?
1.infectious agent or pathogen
3.Portal of exit
4.mode of transmission
5.portal of entry
6.susceptible host
What are 6 possible portal of exit? membranes
2.Resp tract
3.UA and GI tract
4. reproductive tract, blood
person to person contact(fecal or oral)?
Direct contact
contact with contaminated inanimate object i.e. needles or sharp object?
Indirect contact
coughing, sneezing, or talking, particles can travel up to 3 feet?
Evaporated droplets suspended in air or carried on dust particles?
Air-drople nuclei
contaminated items such as water, blood , drugs, solution,food?
external mechanicaltransfer (flies), internal transmission (flea, mosquito, tick)?
Organisms can enter the body the same routes they use for exitin i.e. needle stick, catheter?
portal of entry
susceptibility depends on?
degree of resistance to a pathogen
The potential for the microorganism to cause a disease depends on 4 things?
1. # of organisms
2. virulence:ability
3. ability to enter into host
4. susceptibility of the host
what are the normal defenses against infection? tract
2.mouth 6.Vagina
4.resp tract
how does the skin protect against infection?
Fatty acids kill some bacteria, sheds outer layer
How does the mouth protect against infection?
Saliva contains microbial inhibitors
How does the Eye protect against infection?
Blinking reduces entry washes pathogens
How does the respiratory tract protect againgst infection?
Cilia increase airway, traps microbes
How does the Ua tract protect against infection?
washes away organisms
How does the GI tract protect against infection?
decreased pH, prevents retention of bacteria content
How does the vagina protect against infection?
decrease pH, inhibits growth of organisms
Name 7 inadequate primary defenses?
1.broke skin 5.altered
2.trauma tissue peristalsis
3.slow cilia 6.chg pH
4.obstructed ua flow
7. decreased mobility
name 4 inadequate secondary defenses?
1. low Hgb level
2. low WBC count
3. suppression of WBC
4. suppression of inflammatory response
Interval b/w entrance of pathogen into the body and appearance of first symptoms?
Incubation Period
Interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms?
Prodromal stage
When a clien manifest signs and symptoms specific to type of infection?
Illness stage
When acute symptoms of infection disappear?
A protective vascular reation, that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to interstitial tissues in an area of injury?
What are localized signs and symptoms?
4.pain or tenderness
5.loss of function in affected body part
What are systemic signs and symptoms?
1.Fever 4.anorexia
2.leukocytosis 5.N/V
3.malaise 6.lymph node
What can trigger inflammatory response?
1.Physical agents:extreme temp, trauma, radiation
2.Chemical agents:poison, gastric acid
3. microorganisms
After tissues are injured, what events occur, during the inflammatory response?
1.Vascular response:
2.Cellular response:
3.inflammatory exudates:
4.tissue repair:
Cellular response:
WBC arrive to site, neutrophils/monocytes:ingest/destroy microorganisms=phagocytosis, increase infection=high WBC=leukocytosis
Vascular response:
Local vasodilation
delivery of increase blood and WBC to injured tissues
Inflammatory exudates?
accumulation of fluid(edema and dead tissue cells and WBC
Normal value of WBC?
> acute infection
< some viral infection
Normal ESR?
Men 15mm/hr
women 20mm/hr
> inflammatory response
Culture or urine and blood?
Normal w/o microorganisms
Culture of gram stains
Normal w/o microorganism
55%- 70%
> acute supurative infection
< bacterial infection:older adult
20%- 40%

>chronic bacterial infection
2%- 8%
> With TB, protozoal infections
1%- 4%
> parasitic infection

Normal during infection
Results from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure i.e.UTI after cath insertion
Iatrogenic infection
Clients normal flora becomes altered-fecal material transferred to wound site?
Exogenous infection
Name sites common for nosocomial infection?
UA Tract:unsterile cath insertion
Surgical or Traumatic wounds:No aseptic tech
Respiratory tract:dirty equip
Bloodstream:contaminated IV fluid, site
Name the 6 Standard precautions?
1.Aseptic tech:med/surg
2.Hand Hygiene
Barrier protection from airborne droplets?
private room
neg.pressure airflow
mask or resp protection
Barrier protection from droples larger than 5mm?i.e. sepsis pna mumps
protection from contact?
private room
mask: for drople isolation
-gloves, gowns for contact isolation