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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many heavy and light chains are in a immunoglobulin?
2 identical heavy and 2 identical light
how many domains does each light chain of an immunoglobulin have and what are they? each heavy chain?
light: 2 domains, 1 constant and 1 variable.
heavy: 4-5 domains, 1 variable and 3-4 constant
what kind of bonds link the immunoglobulin chains together?
disulfide bonds
what are the heavy chain immunolgobulin classes? light chain?
mu, gamma, alpha, delta, and epsilon (for IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE). light have 2 classes: lambda and kappa
the Fc region of the antibody is composed of what immunoglobulin chains and domains?
the heavy chain constant domains ---> this is the portion that binds proteins for immunologic function (ie does not bind antigen)
what parts of the Ig make up the antigen binding domain?
the variable heavy and light chains (4 domains)
the fine speceficity of the epitope is determined by what?
the three hypervariable regions or the CDR's
no two B cells are likely to secrete the same Ig unless what?
they are clonal progeny... this is due to the number of different rearrangements that are possible within the variable region of the Ig locus (VDJ gene rearrangement for heavy chain and VJ gene rearrangement for light)
B cells can undergo class switching of the Ig isotype they secrete; what is the order of isotypes in terms of class switching?
mIgM and mIgD, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. note B cells can only class switch in this order and cannot reverse.
explain the role of IgG? IgM? IgA? IgD? IgE?
main Ig in secondary response and most abundant; it can fix complement, opsonize, cross placenta, bind antigen, and remain for naive memory. seen in 1st response as a B cell antigen receptor, can activate complement. Can exist as a dimer and is used in naive memory and is secreted into mucous membranes. Is on B cells as receptor. Used in naive memory and triggers mast cell degranulation (seen with parasites)
the transfer of IgG across the placenta is mediated by what?
the Fc receptor FcRB (brambell receptor)
how can a naive B cell survive out of the marrow and what happens?
it encounters an antigen with T helper cell then it activates, class switches, and differentiates into either Ig secreting plasma cells or non secreting memory cells
what are the characteristics of the primary response?
long lag phase, IgM is first responder, gradual switch to IgG, and low affinity antibodies
what are the characteristics of the secondary response?
short lag phase, very rapid rise in Ig titer, IgG predominates, high affinity antibodies; all this is due to the memory response
which Ig is the best complement activator?
Describe the process of antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity.
linking of the antibody to the infected cell with the FcR of an NK, mac, or neutro thus killing the infected cell. IgG is the isotype that does this
this function of antibodies is performed by very few antibodies...
antibody neutralizing the virus or bac itself to prevent it from binding to the cell.
inflammation occurs when...
tissues are injured by bacs, trauma, or toxins
during inflammation what are the first things that detect infection? what do they cause to happen and what is the purpose of this action?
macs and complement that cause induction of mediators that initiate dilation and increased permeability of BV's with the purpose of isolating the foreign substance from further contact with body tissues
cytokines and complement fragments alter the adhesive properties of the vascular endothelium resulting in what?
extravasation of leukocytes toward chemokines in the inflammed area in order to get phagocytes there. First wave is neutrophils and then monocytes and macs later
molecularly what compounds and receptors activate macs?
these receptors on the surface of the mac can be directly activated by an antigen: mac mannose receptor, scavenger receptors, and toll like receptors. These secreted proteins can indirectly activate the macrophage: mannan-binding lectin and C1q
what is activated when an antigen binds a mac TLR?
altered gene expression via txn to either induce phagocytosis, secrete cytokines and lipid mediators that induce the inflammatory response
what can activate macs that is produced by CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells?
interferon gamma
describe the process of phargocytosis of a mac.
psedopodia grab the bac, bac is ingested forming the phagosome, phagosome then fuses with the lysosome, bac is digested and then the products are released from the cell
many of the proteins in complement are what that are activated by what?
proteases activated by proteases
what are the three purposes of complement?
opsonization, chemoattraction of phagocytes, and killing
all three complement pathways converge where?
at the activation of C3 convertase
complement activation occurs where?
on the surface of the pathogen
which complement protein is responsible for opsinization?
which complement protein is responsible for increasing vasc. permeability, degranulation of mast cells, extravasation of phagocytes, and activation of phagocytes, but can induce generalized circulatory collapse when produced in large amounts resulting in anaphylactic shock.
what are some inflammatory mediators responsible for vascular permeability and vascular adhesion molecules?
C5a, TNF alpha, chemokines, and histamine
describe the process of extravasation.
transient binding of selectin molecules on the endothelial cell surface results in the rolling of the neutrophil along the vascular endothelial surface. Chemokines like IL8 on the endothelial surface activate the leukocyte. Then ICAM's form a tight hold and the leukocyte can go through the endothelium and migrate towards chemokines made from the mac (most important for neutros is IL-8 while MCP-1 is most important for monocytes)
what are the three important pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by macs?
IL1, TNFa, IL6
what cytokine is particularly important in induction of systemic effects including acute phase proteins and what are acute phase proteins?
TNFa. Proteins secreted by the liver that move into circulation and function like Ab's but have broad speceficities for pathogen-associated molecular patterns
what cells in the inflamed area are the major APC's to B and T cells in nearby lymphoid tissue?
immature dendrytic cells