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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
adhesion molecules
a molecule on one cell surface that interacts with a counter molecule on another cell causing cells to adhere together
anaphylatoxins
complement proteins fragments that bind receptors on mast cells and basophils causing their degranulation (histamine release)
antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
destruction of cells by NK cells followign interaction with the Fc region of IgG bound to the cell or microbe
basophils
circulating cells that degranulate, counterpart to mast cells
C-reactive protein (CRP)
an inflammatory protein that acts as an opsonin. it is secreted by hepatocytes following stimulation with IL-6
C3
a complement protein that is central to both the alternative and classical pathways of complement
C3a
a proteolytic fragment of complement-functions as anaphylatoxin
C3b
a proteolytic fragment of complement-functions as opsonin
C5a
proteolytic fragment of complement-functions as anaphylatoxin
chemokines
molecules that serve to attract cells expressing cognate receptors on the cell surface
chemotactic molecule
molecules that serve to attract cells expressing cognate receptors on the cell surface aka chemokine
chloride ion
an ion that plays a role in host defence in the presense of hydrogen peroxide
chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
a genetic disorder that results in an inability to destroy antigen in the phagosome
diapedesis
the process of moving from the blood vessel into tissue
eosinophils
cells that play an important role in host immunity to helminths (parasites)
eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)
protein secreted by eosinophil, toxic to helminths
FcεR
receptor for IgE Fc region
FcγR
receptor for IgG Fc region
hepatocytes
liver cells
hydrogen peroxide
molecule produced in the phagosome during the biochemical cascade that follows activation of NADPH oxidase
hydroxyl ions
one of the ROI produced following the activation of NADPH oxidase, plays role in destruction of microbes within the phagosome
hydroxyl radical
one of the ROI produced following the activation of NADPH oxidase, plays role in destruction of microbes within the phagosome
hypochlorite
formed following interaction of hydrogen peroxide, chloride ion, proton, catalyzed by myeloperoxidase
IgE
antibody that plays a role in host defense to helminths and allergies
IgG
antibody that plays an important role in ADCC by NK cells and opsonin mediated phagocytosis by phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages)
inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
enzyme that requires IFN-gamma for its induction. enzyme required for the generation of nitric oxide in phagocytes
interferon gamma (IFN-γ)
cytokine that is secreted by helper T cells (CD4+ Th1)
interleukin 10 (IL-10)
cytokine that is inhibitory for APC secretion of cytokines (e.g. IL-12)
interleukin 4 (IL-4)
cytokine that plays an important role in the switch from IgM to IgE antibodies on B cells
killer inhibitory receptors(KIR)
receptors whose interaction with their ligands results in the inhibition by NK cells
lysosomal enzymes
enzymes present in lysosomes: defensins, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, lysozymes
lysosomes
cytoplasmic organelles that contain enzymes
macrophages
tissue phagocytes, differentiated monocytes
major basic protein (MBP)
protein toxic to helminths, secreted by eosinophils
mast cell
tissue cell that degranulates when ligand binds to receptors on cell-tissue counterpart to basophils
membrane attack complex (MAC)
a complex of complement proteins whose insertion into a cell or bacterium causes osmotic lysis
NADPH oxidase
an enzyme required to initiate a cascade of biochemical changes that results in the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs)
natural killer cells (NK cells)
cells of innate immunity that kill virally infected cells and sometimes tumor cells
neutrophils
phagocytes that circulate and enter tissues where there is inflammation
nitric oxide (NO)
a molecule that is toxic to microbes, produced following induction of iNOS, formed when arginine converted to citrulline
nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT)
a test that is performed to determine whether the NADPH oxidase complex is functional
opsonin
a molecule that binds to microbes and is recognized by receptors on macrophages
opsonin mediated phagocytosis
phagocytosis resulting from the interaction of an opsonin with its receptor on the phagocyte
opsonization
refers to the presense of an opnonin on a microbe
osmotic lysis
mechanism of cell destruction when a cell membrane is ruptured
perforin
a molecule secreted by cytotoxic cells (NK cells and CD8+ T cells)
phagolysosome
a chimeric vesicle formed by the fusion of a phagosome with a lysosome
phagosome
a phagocytic vacuole
primitive pattern recognition receptors (PPRR)
receptors on phagocytes that recognize sequences on a number of microbes or antigens
reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI)
e.g. NO
reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)
e.g. hydroxyl radical
superoxide anion
molecule that is toxic, one of the ROI produced following the activation of NADPH oxidase
transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)
cytokine that inhibits iNOS
myeloperoxidase
an enzyme required to form hypochlorite from H2O2 and Cl-
natural killer cell activating receptor
receptor present on NK cells, when bound to its ligant results in activation of NK cells to kill their target (expressing the ligand)