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47 Cards in this Set

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adhesive molecules
surface molecules that bind counter molecules on other cells causing close contact between the cells
afferent lymphatics
lymphatic vessels that enter the lymph nodes
alpha-beta TCR
refers to the T cell antigen heterodimeric receptor on more than 90% of T cells
alternative splicing
the process by which mRNA is spliced to create either a mu or a delta heavy chain constant region
anergy
the process by which a stimulus causes cells to become non responsive
apoptosis
the process by which cells under go self-induced suicide
autoreactive
refers to immunological responses against self antigens
BCR
the B cell receptor - refers to the antigen specific receptor on B cells
CD19
a molecule that is present on all B cells - therefore a panmarker
CD3
a molecule that is present on all T cells - therefore a panmarker
CD79a
expressed in association with CD79b - the complex is expressed on the cell surface with BCR
CD79b
expressed in association with CD79a - the complex is expressed on the cell surface with BCR
combinatorial diversity
a term that refers to the multitude of gene segments that comprise variable regions of BCR and TCR
death by neglect
refers to the phenomenon by which developing thymocytes die because they do no receive appropriate signals
diversity (D)
a gene segment that encodes a segment of the heavy chain Ig or the beta chain of the TCR but not light chain or TCR-alpha
down regulation
the process by which expression of cell surface molecules is decreased
efferent lymphatics
lymphatic vesels that leave tissues
gamma-delta TCR
refers to the T cell antigen heterodimeric receptor on about 10% of the T cells
germline DNA
refers to genomic DNA, DNA that has not been altered by recombinatorial events
glycocalyx
a prominent filamentous layer on the surface of specialized endothelial cells
high endothelial venules
special post-capillary venules that serve as sites for lymphocytes to exit blood and enter lymph node parenchyma
integrin
adhesion molecules that induce firm contact between cells that have appropriate counter molecules
joining (J)
segment of DNA that encodes for a segment of the light and heavy chain variable regions (as well as TCR alpha-beta)
junctional diversity
the heterogeneity that results from either the removal or addition of bases at the junction of DNA segments V, D, J
kappa
one of the two light chain constant regions - the other is lambda
L selectin
a molecule whose interaction with counter molecules causes lymphocytes to roll on the endothelium
lambda
one of the two light chain constant regions - the other is kappa
lineage commitment
the process during T cell development in which CD8+, CD4+ thymocytes become CD8+ or CD4+ only
matrix metalloproteinases
enzymes that cause the degradation of endothelial cell wall to allow cells to pass from the blood vessels to tissues
mIg
membrane immunoglobulin, same as BCR
negative selection
destruction of developing thymocytes as a result of strong signals when thymocytes interact with thymic epithelium
panmarker
refers to a cell suface molecule present on a particular cell type and not usually present on other cells
positive selection
the proliferation of developing thymocytes when they receive the appropriate signals
pre-BCR
the precursor complex expresed on developing B cells prior to the expresion of the BCR complex
pre-Tα
the chain that associates with the beta chain TCR to form a precursor complex on the developing T cells in the thymus
pseudo light chain
the chain that is associated with the heavy chain to form a precursor complex on developing B cells
recombination activating genes (RAG-1 and RAG-2)
genes that encode proteins required for somatic recombination of variable region of B cell or T cell angigen receptors
somatic recombination
the process by which DNA segments are rearranged to form a variable region for either the B cell or T cell receptor
TCR
the T cel receptor on the majority of T cells - it recognizes antigen-MHC complexes
TCRα
the alpha chain of the T cell receptor
TCRβ
the beta chain of the T cell receptor
terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
an enzyme capable of catalyzing the template independent insertion of nucleotides between variable region segments
tolerance induction
the process by which the immune system remains non responsive to self antigen
transcription
the process by which DNA is converted to mRNA
translation
the process by which mRNA is converted to protein
triggering threshold
the level of signal intensity beyond which cells are destroyed
variable (V)
the region present in each chain of the B cell and T cell antigen recognizing receptors