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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First Line of Defense
1) intact skin as barrier
2) Mucous membrane lining: digestive, respiratory, and genito urinary tracts
-saliva, tears, mucous contain lysozyme
-mucus traps particles
-acidic stomach
Second Line of Defense
(WHITE BLOOD CELLS: neutrophils)
1) neutrophils- 70% of WBC, cells that are damaged by invading microbes release chemical signals that attract neutrophils from the blood, who enter the infected tissue, and engulf/destroy tissue there.
Second Line of Defense
(WHITE BLOOD CELLS: monocytes)
develop into macrophages ("big eaters"), amoeba-like movement, long-lived may reside in organs (spleen, liver) and tissues. has long pseudopodia that reaches for microbes and digests
Second Line of Defense
(WHITE BLOOD CELLS: eosinophils)
destroys large parasites
Second Line of Defense
(Natural killer cells)
destroy infected cells, lys
Second Line of Defense
(ANtimicrobial proteins)
1) lysozyme
2) complement system - groups of proteins that lysis invaders - opsonization
3) interferons - secreted by infected cells to help surrounding cells
Second Line of Defense
(inflammatory response)
damage to tissues cause blood vessels to dilate and more blood to injury and vicinity therefore swelling (edema) and heat
Third Line of defense:
immune system specific
(specificity)
1) specificity
-antigen triggers the production by lymphocytes to specific antibodies
Third Line of defense:
immune system specific
(diversity)
can protect against millions of types of antigens using receptors
Third Line of defense:
immune system specific
(memory)
"acquired immunity"
-can react faster the next time memory cells made by 1 degree response used in 2 degree immune response
Third Line of defense:
immune system specific
(self/nonself recognition)
self markers called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (HLA in humans) - biochemical fingerprints
Third Line of defense:
acquired immunity
1) active - through recovery or vaccination
2) passive - transferred from other person
Third Line of defense:
immune system responses
1) humoral immunity - circulate antibodies against toxins, bacteria, viruses
2) cell-mediated immunity - lymphocytes fight antigens inside host's cells and fungi, protozoa & worms. also, attacks plants and cancer cells
Third Line of defense:
Types of Lymphocytes
B Cells (bone marrow) - humoral imm.

T Cells (thymus) - cell mediated
-conc. in lymph nodes/spleen
-both contain antigen and produce effector cells
Third Line of Defense:
Antibodies
Proteins called immunoglobins
IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE
-y shaped
-attach to antigen's epitope and neutralize active site
Third Line of Defense:
Antibodies- monoclonal
antibodies from a single cell, all identical, formed by hybridoma technique

immunotoxin- antibody-toxin bullet
Third Line of Defense:
blood transfusion
type A has antigen A on rbc surface therefore A lysed if in type B person

RH FACTOR- another antigen on rbc antibodies can cross placenta
Third Line of Defense:
Grafts & transplants
to suppress rejection by Tc:
-need to match MHC of patients & donor
-use drugs to suppress immune system