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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The complex mass of neural cells and related cells encased in the skull.
The nerve fibers in the spinal column.
Spinal cord
An individual nerve cell
Scientist who discovered neurons in the early 1900's.
Ramon y Cajal
The central part of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus or the cell's control center.
Cell Body
Small branches that extend out from the cell body and receive messages from other neurons.
Small branches at the end of the cell body that send, transmit, or carry away messages to the next neuron
A brief electrical signal that travels the length of the axon.
Action potential
Small space between two neurons.
Synaptic gap
Chemical substance, produced by axons, that transmit messages across the synapse
Tiny vessels containing stored quantities of the neurtranmitter substance held in the synaptic knobs of the axon.
Synaptic vesicles
Knoblike tips of axons
Synaptic knobs
There are as many as __________ different neurotranmitters.
Made of the brain and the spinal cord.
Central Nervous System
Made up of nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord to all parts of the body
Peripheral Nervous system
Neurons that transmit messages from sense organs to the central nervous system
afferent neurons
Neurons that transmit messages from the central nervous system to organs and muscles.
Efferent Neurons
The peripheral nervous system is further divided into the _________ and _______ nervous system.
Somatic and Autonomic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system is divided into the __________ and the ________ division.
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
"Calms" visceral organs after arousal.
Activates visceral organs during emotional arousal or when physical demands are made on the body.
Uses electrodes to record electrical activity of the brain
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Produces x-ray images
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Detects magnetic activity form the nuclei of atoms in the cells and creates detailed views of the brain structure and function.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Lowest part of the brain located at the rear base of the skull.
Small area at top of the hindbrain that serves primarily as a center for postural reflexes, particularly those associated senses.
Covers the hindbrain and midbrain and fill much of the skull.
The part of the forebrain that primarily routes sensory messages to appropriate parts of the brain.
Small part of the forebrain involved with motives, emotions, and the functions of the autonomic nervous system
Part of the brain that works with the hupothalamus in emotional arousal.
Limbic System
Part of the limbic system that plays a role in emotional arousal and memory.
Largest structure in the forebrain
cerebral Cortex
Part of skull behind forehead and extend back to middle of top of head.
Located just behind frontal lobes at top of skull
Parietal Lobes
Extend backward from the ares of temples
Temporal lobes
Located at base of back of head, fartherest from eyes but its most important function is in processing sensory information from the eyes
Occipital lobes
Two halves of the cerbral cortex.
Right and Left Cerbral Hemispheres
The right hemisphere primarly controls the _____ side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the _____ side of body.
left; right
Appears to be more involved in processing information about shapes and locations of thing in space.
Right Hemisphere
More involved in language?
Left Hemisphere
Left hemisphere is more involved with _______ emotions and the right is more involved with _____ emotions. (negative or positive)
positive; negative
The ability of parts of the brain to acquire new functions that replace the functions of a damaged part of the brain.
The system of glands that secrets hormones
endocrine system
Structures in the body that secrete substances
Chemical substances, produced by endocrine glands, the influence internal glands.
Sequences of base pairs that contain all the information needed to influence some aspect of a structure or function of the body
strands of DNA in cells
The uniting of sperm and ovum, which produces a zygote.
The stable cell resulting from fertilization
A sex cell, which contains 23 Chromosomes instead of the normal 46.
How many chromosomes does the normal cell have?
In Down Syndromes, there is a problem with the ______ chromosome.
Twins formeed from a single ovum.
monozygotic twins
Twins formed from the fertilization of two ova by two sperm.
Dizygotic Twins