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63 Cards in this Set

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What are the 7 derived primate characteristics?
1.Forward direction of eyes
2.Reduction in snout size
3.Flexible hands/feet with opposible thumb/big toe
4.Nails on most digits instead of claws
5.Expansion and increasing complexity of brain
6.Longer period of gestation with single birth
7.Longer period of maturation with greater dependence on learned behavior
What is encephalization and what does it lead to?
Large Brains
-more complex
-visual/association areas expanded
-longer gestation
-K-selected
-learning flexibility
-greater sociality
In the Primate Order Chart, which three Infraorders lie under the Suborder, Prosimii (Prosimians)?
Lemuriformes, Lorisiformes, and Tarsiiformes
What are the main characteristics of Prosimians?
-Most primitive primate group
-Olfaction/moist rhinarium
-reliance on scent marking
-nocturnal to diurnal
-laterally placed eyes
-insectovery/fruit/leaves/bark
-vertical clinging and leaping to arboreal/teresstrial quadrupedalism for vehicle movement
-monogamy to large social units
-shorter gestation legnths/litters
What are the distinguishing features of lemurs?
-laterally flaring talus (heelbone)
-reduced upper incisors
-grooming claw
-dental comb
What are the main factors in Vertical Clinging and Leaping (VCL)?
-erect body position (orthograde)
-long,powerfully muscled hind limbs
-horizontal thrust away from tree
What are the main characteristics of Anthropoids (monkeys, apes, humans)?
-larger body size
-larger brains
-no rhinarium/reduced smell
-forward eyes/color vision
-fully enclosed eye orbit
-fused mandible at midline
-more generalized teeth
-longer gestation/maturation
-increased parental care
-more mutual grooming
What are the five forms of locomotion among Anthropoids?
-arboreal quadrupedality - four limbs in trees
-terrestrial quadrupedality - four limbs on ground
-semi-brachiation - all used equally
-knuckle walking
-bipedally
What are the distinguishing features of Anthropoids from Prosimians?
-Anthropoids - fused frontal lobe, fused mandibular symphysis, postorbital closure, nails
-Posimians - opposite of Antrhopoids, claws instead of nails
What are the distinguishing features of the Haplorhini and the Strepsirhini?
-Haplorhini - relatively short rostrum (snout), plate separating orbits from temporal fossa
-Strepsirhini - relatively long rostrum (snout), postorbital bar, no plate
In the Primate Order Chart, what are the two Infraorders beneath the Suborder, Anthropoidea?
Platyrrhini and Catarrhini
In the Primate Order Chart, what are the two Suborders?
Prosimii and Anthropoidea
What are the features that distinguish Platyrrhines and Catarrhines?
Catarrhines - Old World monkeys, dental formula 2.1.2.3., downward flaring nostrals
Platyrrhines - New World monkeys, laterally flaring nostrals, dental formula 2.1.3.3.
In the Primate Order Chart, which superfamily lies beneath the infraorder, Platyrrhini?
Ceboidea
In the Primate Order Chart, which three families lie beneath the superfamily, Ceboidea?
Callitrichidae, Atelidae, Cebidae
In the Primate Order Chart, which two superfamilies exist beneath the infraorder, Catarrhini?
Ceropithecoidea and Hominoidea
In the Primate Order Chart, which family exists beneath the superfamily, Ceropithecoidea?
Cercopithecidae
In the Primate Order Chart, which two subfamilies exist beneath the family Cercopithecidae?
Cercopithecinae and Colobinae
What are the distinguishing features of marmosets?
Simple molars, the dental formula 2.1.3.2., and digital claws
What are the features that distinguish the two major groups of Old World monkeys - the Colobinae and the Cercopithecinae?
Colobinae - broad interorbital region, narrow incisors, sectional premolars, deep jaw, high cusps, complex stomach, short thumbs, long legs, and long tail.
Cercopithecinae - narrow interorbital region, broad incisors, shallow jaw, sectional premolars, cheek pouches, similar arms and legs,.
The Colobine's stomach is _________ in order for them to be able to process leaves.
Complex
The Cercopithecines, along with most other primates, have a __________ stomach.
Generalized or normal
In the Primate Order Chart, which three families are found under the superfamily, Hominoidea?
Hylobatidae, Pongidae, and Hominidae
In the Primate Order Chart, which three genus' are found beneath the family, Pongidae?
Pongo, Gorilla, and Pan
In the Primate Order Chart, which genus is found beneath the family Hominidae?
Homo
What are the main characteristics found in Hominoids (Apes and Humans)?
-largest body size
-absence of tail
-shortened trunk
-greater cognitive ability
-behavioral complexity
-delayed maturation
-greater infant dependency
-highly k-selected
What are the main features that distinguish Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) from the apes (Hominoidea)?
Old World monkeys - narrow nose, narrow palate, sectional pj, biophodant molars, long tail, long trunk, limbs more equal in length.
Apes - broad nose, broad palate, larger brain, bunodant molars (y-5), full abduction of forelimb, long arms, short trunk, no tail.
How do the cusp patterns in Catarrhines differ between a Cercopithecoidea (baboon) and a Hominoidea (chimpanzee)?
The Hominoidea have flatter bun shaped cusps while Cercopithecoidea have pointier peak-like cusps.
What are the main characteristics of non-human Hominoids?
-body size range is from 15 lbs. to 400 lbs. (wild)
-ecological range: tropical - dry savana
-body/canine size dimorphism: range 0%-100%
-reproductive range: monogamy - harem
-dietary range: folivery - meat protein (hunting: colobus), mostly frugivory
What is the sister group of the primate order in that they are the closest thing to being a primate but are not?
Archonta
What are three examples of Archonta?
Scandentia - tree shrew
Dermoptera - flying lemurs
Chiroptera - bats
What are the five cranial specializations found in primates?
1. strong emphasis on vision with a reduction in sense of smell
2. size of snout reduced
3. eyes grow larger and become walled in
4. eyes are also directed forward resulting in binocular and stereoscopic vision
5. expansion in size and complexity of the brain
What are the two postcranial speicializations found in primates?
1. grasping hands and feet with fully opposable thumbs
2. nails on most digits
What are four characteristics of primates dealing with development?
1. reduced number of young at birth
2. longer period of maturation
3. greater dependency on learned behavior
4. more social behavior patterns develop
What are the three theories of primate origins and who created them?
1. arboreal hypothesis - G. Elliot Smith
2. visual predation hypothesis - Matt Cartmill
3. angiosperm hypothesis - Robert Sussman
What is the Arboreal Hypothesis?
1. primates involve in the trees
2. binocular and stereoscopic vision are needed for primates to judge the distances between branches
3. have flexible hands and feet with opposable hallux/pollux and without claws to grasp branches
What is the Visual Predation Hypothesis?
1. precise hand/eye/mouth coordination
2. binocular and stereoscopic vision so they could accurately judge how far away an insect was without moving their head
3. lack of claws needed for terminal branch feeding
What is the Angiosperm Hypothesis?
1. expansion of elements from the visual predation hypothesis
2. binocular and stereoscopic vision so they could accurately judge how far away an insect was without moving their head
3. need color vision to judge ripeness of fruit
4. lack of claws and grasping hands needed for terminal branch feeding - eat insects and fruit
From earliest to latest, what are the epochs that took place during the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era?
Paleocene
Eocene
Oligocene
Miocene
Pliocene
Which changes in primate evolution took place during the Eocene?
(New World and Old World)
-earliest definite primate
-prosimian radiation
-earliest anthropoids
Which changes in primate evolution took place during the Oligocene?
(Old World)
-early anthropoids
-early anthropoid radiation
-Aegyptoplithecus
-Apidium
Which changes in primate evolution took place during the Miocene?
(Old World)
-earliest hominoid
-hominoid radiation
-Proconsul
-Dryoplithecus
-Sivapithecus
What are the major features that distinguish Plesiadapiforms from Prosimians?
Plesiadapiforms - long narrow snout, no postorbital bar, small brain, large incisors, petrosal bulla, claws, no opposable thumbs
Prosimians - broader snout, postorbital bar, larger brain, petrosal bulla, small incisors, big canine, or large incsors and small canine, nails, opposable thumbs
What are the distinguishing features between Adapoids (Notharctus) and Omomyoids (Tetonius)?
Adapoids - small eyes, ring in ear, long snout, small incisors, large canines, many premolar and molar shearing crests, digital nails
Omomyoids - large eyes, short snout, ear tube, large incisors, small canines, small species with sharp pointed molar cusps, large later species with flat molar teeth, elongated tarsus
What is an example of an Omomyoid?
Rooneyia viejaensis
What are two examples of Adapoids?
Smilodectes and Adapis
When and where did the Adapoid and Omomyoid evolution take place?
During the Eocene, movement between North America and Eurasia
When and where did the Antrhopoid evolution take place?
During the Oligocene, movement between North America and Eurasia
Where was the first Anthropoid evolution thought to be?
It is thought to be in Asia.
How did the New World Monkeys reach South America?
island stepping stones, rafting - the ancestors of New World monkeys may have rafted between islands across the South Atlantic
What is significant of the Branisella?
-possible stem ancestor to all platyrrhines
-late oligocene
-from bolivia
What is significant of the Victoriapithecus?
-earliest known Old World Monkey
-predates the split of Old World Monkey into Cercopithecinae (omnivores) and Colobinae (folivores)
-has bilophodont and Y-5 molars
-evolved from an ape ancestor
What are the morphologies found in apes?
-rounded y-5 molar cusp pattern
-large brains
-absence of tail
-shortened trunk
-more orthograde (upright) posture
-larger body size
-living apes are examples of mosaic evolution
Who was the first Miocene ape discovered in East Africa?
Proconsul africanus
What specializations are found in the ape shoulder joint?
-dorso-ventrally compressed trunk
-superio-inferiorly elongated, dorsally placed scapula
-long clavicle
-globular head of the humerus
-laterally facing glenoid fossa
What specialization are found in the ape elbow and wrist?
-spool-shaped, deep guttered trochlea
-trochlear notch of ulna has pronounced medial keel
-short olecranon process
-round radial head
-reduced styloid process of the ulna
What are the main characteristics of the Dryopithecus?
-12 ma
-Europe
-long manual phalanges, curved
-great ape sized brain
-suspensory locomotion
-believed to lead to African ape group (not necessarily last common ancestor)
What is significant of the Gigantopithecus?
-evolved in Asia
-likely to be the sister group of the orangutan and the Asian Miocene ape, Sivapithecus
What is knuckle-walking?
-brachiation on the ground
-arms are too long to walk on fingertips
-walk on the dorsal side of the middle phalanx of 3rd and 4th digits
-this leads to associated skeletal and soft tissue changes
-the wrist must not be allowed to over extend the hand
What are the major characteristics of knuckle-walking hands?
-distal projection of dorsal ridge of distal radius
-dorsal concavity on scaphoid
-large scaphoid articular surface
-disto-medial co-planar scphoid and lunate
-close-packing of the capitate
-metacarpals 3 and 4 have expanded dorsal articular surfaces
Which type of locomotion do the gibbons (lacopithecus) use?
brachiation
Which type of locomotion do the orangutan (sivapithecus, ankarapithecus) use?
suspensory behavior
Which type of locomotion do the African apes (Ouranopithecus) use?
Knuckle-walking