Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is most knowledge obtained for physiology of language?
By observing the effects of brain lesions on people's verbal behavior. Head injuries, brain tumors, or infections, most of the observations have been made on people who have suffered strokes, or cerebrovascular accidents. Also, information can come from PET or Functional MRI
Cerebrovascular accident
A "stroke"; brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain.
Most common type of CVA is caused by?
Obstruction of blood vessel. The interruption in blood flow deprives a region of the brain of it blood supply, which causes cells in that region to die.
Aphasia
Difficulty in producing or comphrehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage.
Verbal behavior is what kind of function?
Lateralized
Most language distrubances occur after damage to which side of the brain?
The left side
What happens if the left hemisphere is damaged early in life?
If the left hemisphere is malformed or damaged early in life, then language dominance is very likely to pass to the right hemisphere.
What are the perceptual functions of the left hemisphere?
Are more specialized for the analysis of sequences of stimuli, occurring one after the other. Speech consists of sequences of words, which are composed of sequences of sounds.
What are the perceptual functions of the right hemisphere?
Are more specialized for the analysis of space and geometrical shapes and forms, the elements of which are all present at the same time.
Are both hemispheres important in speech and language?
Although the circuits that are primarily involved in speech comprehension and production are located in the left hemisphere, it would be a mistake to conclude that the other hemisphere plays no role in speech.
Most language distrubances occur after damage to which side of the brain?
The left side
What happens if the left hemisphere is damaged early in life?
If the left hemisphere is malformed or damaged early in life, then language dominance is very likely to pass to the right hemisphere.
What are the perceptual functions of the left hemisphere?
Are more specialized for the analysis of sequences of stimuli, occurring one after the other. Speech consists of sequences of words, which are composed of sequences of sounds.
What are the perceptual functions of the right hemisphere?
Are more specialized for the analysis of space and geometrical shapes and forms, the elements of which are all present at the same time.
Are both hemispheres important in speech and language?
Although the circuits that are primarily involved in speech comprehension and production are located in the left hemisphere, it would be a mistake to conclude that the other hemisphere plays no role in speech.
Give an example of how the right hemisphere is important in verbal behavior?
For example, damage to the right hemisphere make it difficult for a person to read maps, perceive spatial relationships, and recognize complex geometrical forms.
Right hemisphere is involved in
Expression and recognition of emotion in the tone of voice. Also, in control of prosody-normal rhythm and stress found in speech.
Broca's aphasia
3-A's (Not motor related) Damage to inferior left frontal lobe. A form of aphasia characterized by agrammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation. This disorder is characterized by slow, laborious, and nonfluent speech. They often mispronounce words, the ones they manage to say are usually meaningful.
People with Broca's aphasia have great difficulty saying what kind of words?
functions words
Functions words
A preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure. (a, the, some, in, or about)
People with Broca's aphasia they do not have trouble with are?
Content words
Content words
A noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning.
Can people with Broca's aphasia comprehend speech?
They can comprehend speech much better than they can produce it.
Broca's area
A region of frontal cortex, located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary for normal speech production.
What do the neural circuits in and around Broca's area do?
Contains memories of sequences of muscular movements that are neede to articulate words. (movements in tongue, lips, and jaw)
Agrammatism
(w/out or away from grammar)One of the usual symptoms of Broca's aphasia; a difficulty in comprehending or properly empolying grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order. Comprehension is not normal.
Anomia
(w/out name)Difficulty in finding (remembering) the appropriate word to describe an object, action, or attribute; one symptoms of aphasia.
Difficult with articulation
Mispronounce words, often altering the sequence of sounds. Lipstick --- Likstip
They recognize that their pronunciation is erroneous, and they usually try to correct it.
Apraxia of speech
Impairment in the ability to program movements of the tongue, lips, and throat required to produce the proper sequence of speech sounds.
Wernicke's area
A region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal lobe of humans, which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech.
Wrenicke's aphasia
Characterized by poor speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech. Unlabored, the person does not have to strain to articulate words.
Does a person with wrenicke's aphasia use content and fucntion words?
The uses function words such as the and but and employs complex verb tenses. However, the person uses few content words, and the words that he or she strings to gether just do not make sense. Make up their own words.
Are people with wrenicke's aphasia aware of their deficit?
They do not apear to recognize that their speech is faulty, nor do they recognize that they cannot understand the speech of others.
Pure word deafness
The ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by damage to Wernicke's area or the disruption of auditory input to this region.
Recogntion
Recognizing a word is not the same as comprehending it. Recognition is a perceptual task, comprehension involves retrieval of additional information from memory.
Damage to what caused pure word deafness?
left temporal lobe
Pure word deafness
Not deaf, "I can hear you talking, I just can't understand what you're saying." They can recognize non-speech sounds such as barking. They can read lips. Their own speech is excellent. They can communicate through writing, clearly it is not the inability to comprehend the meaning of words.
Transcortical sensory aphasia
A speech disorder in which a person has difficulty comprehending speech and producing meaningful spontaneous speech but can repeat speech; caused by damage to the region of the brain posterior to Wrenicke's area.
Autotopagnosia
Inability to name body parts or to identify body parts that another person names.
Arcuate fasciculus
Damage to this area causes conduction aphasia.
Conduction aphasia
An aphasia characterized by inability to repeat words that are heard but the ability to speak normally and comprehend the speech of others.
Circulocution
A strategy by which people with anomia find alternative ways to say someting when they are unable to think of the most appropriate word.
Prosody
The use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion. Production of prosody is rather like singing, and prosody often serves as a vehicle for conveying emotions.
Reading and writing skillls of people with aphasia almost always rememble
their speaking and comprehening abilities.
Pure alexia
Loss of the ability to read without loss of the ability to write, produced by brain damage. They can recognize a word that is spelled aloud to them, therefore, they have not lost their memories of the spellings of words.
Toward an understanding of reading
Reading involves at least two different processes; direct recognition of the word as a whole and sounding it out letter by letter. When we see a familar word, we normally recognize it by its shape and pronounce it--aprocess known as whole-word reading. The second method, which we use for unfamilar words, requires the recognition of individual letters and knowledge of the sounds they make. This process is known as phonetic reading.
Whole-word reading
Reading by recognizing a word as a whole; "sight reading."
Phonetic reading
Reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter srings, "sound reading."
Surface dyslexia
A reading disorder in which a person can read words phonetically but has difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole-word method.
Phonological dyslexia
a reading disorder in which a person can read familiar words but has difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable nonwords.
Direct dyslexia
A language disorder caused by brain damage in which the person can read words aloud without understanding them.
Phonological dysgraphia
A writing disorder in which the person cannot sound out words and write them phonetically.
Orthographic dysgraphia
A writing disorder in which the person can spell regularly spelled words but not irregularly spelled ones.
Developmental dyslexia
A reading difficulty in a person of normal intelligence and perceptual ability; of genetic origin or caused by prenatal or preinatal factors.