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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
the study of the structure of organs and body systems
Physiology
the study of the function of the organs and body systems
Atoms
the smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element
Molecule
a chemical bonding of atoms that possesses its own characteristics independent of the atoms themselves
Cells
Molecules combine to form cells
Tissues
Cells combine in terms of function and type to form tissues
Organ
two or more tissues types work together to perform a specific function.
How many organ systems are there and what are they?
11:
Circulatory System, Digestive System, Endocrine System, Integumentary System, Lymphatic System, Muscular System, Nervous System, Reproductive System, Respiratory System, Skeletal System, Urinary System
Epithelial Tissue

-Simple and Stratified
-Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar.
-Provides Covering
-Produces Secretions
-Exists in sheets
-Does not have own blood supply
-Dependent on diffusion from capillaries for food and oxygen.
Connective Tissue
- found all over the body.
- has own blood supply
- includes: bone cartilage, adipose, and blood vessels
Muscle Tissue
(used to produce movement)

Skeletal Muscle
voluntary movement for bones
(controlled by brain)
Muscle Tissue
(used to produce movement)

Smooth Muscle
involuntary control.
found in walls of hollow organs: intestines, blood vessels, bladder, and uterus
Muscle Tissue
(used to produce movement)

Cardiac Muscle
Involuntary control
Only found in the heart.
Nervous Tissue
(where it is found)
Provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nerve
(Purpose and protection)
made up of specialized cells (neurons) that send electrical impulses throughout the body.

--Myelin- is a support cells that helps protect nervous tissue.
Circulatory System
(Consist of and functions)
Heart, Blood vessels, and Blood.

Also called cardiovascular sys- supplies oxygen and nutrients while removing wastes such as lactic acid.

Circulates oxygen, hormones, and nutrients
Digestive System
(Consist of and functions)
Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large intestines, Rectum and anus.

-Manufactures enzymes that break down food so nutrients can easily be passed into the blood for circulation.

The liver synthesizes urea that must excreted by the kidneys

Provides nutrients for the mineralization of bones.
Small Intestines
(Consist of and functions)
Absorption of nutrients

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Functions of Colon
Removes water from waste that remains
Functions of Liver
produces bile that helps break down fats
Functions of Pancreas
(in digestion)
Delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion
Endocrine System
(Consist of and functions)
Controls body functions.

Secretes hormones that travel through the blood to organs.

Pineal, Pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal regulates Growth and metabolism.

Hormones released influence blood pressure, and muscular strength and release of calcium. (Controls how much and when)

Helps regulate reabsorption of water and electrolytes in kidneys
Integumentary System
(Consist of and Functions)
Protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temp. Serves as barrier to pathogens.

Skin, Mucous membranes, hair, and nails.

Allows heat to escape by dilating superficial blood vessels

Provides vitamin D necessary for absorbing calcium into bone
Lymphatic System
(Functions)
Supports immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes.

Returns fluid that has leaked form the cardiovascular system back to blood vessels.

Brain Controls immune response

Transports sex horomones
Lymphatic System
(Consist of)
-Lymph nodes
-Lymph vessels that carry Lymph (a clear fluid rich in antibodies)
-Spleen
-Thymus
-Tonsils (made of lymphoid tissue
Acid Secretions
Prevent Bacterial Growth

Located in Reproductive and Integumentary Systems
Muscular System
(Consist of and Functions)
Skeletal muscles,Tendons (connect muscle to bone)
Ligaments (attach bones to form joints)

Provides protection for some endocrine glands.

Muscle activity speeds up gastrointestinal tract.

Generates heat that is expelled through the skin as sweat.
Nervous System
(Consist of)
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Pituitary Gland
(part of nervous system)
Secretion of hormones
Nervous System
(Functions)
The body's control system.

Controls blood pressure, heart rate and distribution of blood.
Regulates production of sweat, interprets stimuli, and adjusts the diameter of blood vessels in the skin.

Regulates and coordinates muscle activity.

Regulates breathing rate and depth.
Reproductive System
(Consist of)
-Testes
-Penis
-Ovaries
-Vagina
-Breast
Reproductive System
(Functions)
-Houses hormones that encourage or suppress activities

-Influences masculine or feminine characteristics
(and muscle size)
Estrogen
Influences vascular health in women
Respiratory System
(Consist of)
Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Respiratory and digestive systems provide oxygen and nutrients to the skin to help it remain healthy.
Oxygen Exchange
Alveoli (tiny air sacs) where Oxygen and Carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs via arterioles (small blood vessels.
Skeletal System
(Consist of and Functions)
Bones, Cartilage Ligaments, and Joints.

Storage for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.

Blood cells are formed in the marrow of bones.

Provides shape and support

Provides levers for muscular activity
Urinary System
(Consist of and Functions)
Maintains waters and electrolyte balance in the body.

Regulates acid-base balance of blood.

Activates vitamin D (which is necessary for calcium absorption into bone)

Removes all nitrogen containing wastes from body.
Adaptation
Receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
Circulation
Transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system
Elimination
Remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system
Locomotion
Allow voluntary ad involuntary movement of the body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems
Nutrition
take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system
Oxygenation
take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory system
Regulation
hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system
Self-duplication
production of offspring via the reproductive system
Homeostasis
all organ systems are working properly and is in a stable state.
Human Body
(Eukaryotic Cells)
Surrounded by a membrane.
Organelles inside cells are also surrounded by a membrane.
Metabolizing
The use of energy by cells as a result of chemical reactions within cells.
Heart
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium (during contraction of atrium) flows through tricuspid valve into RV. Blood is pushed through pulmonary valve into pulmonary artery and lungs when RV contracts. (Picks up oxygen from lungs) Oxygenated blood goes back to hear via pulmonary veins into L atrium, through mitral valve into LV. Contraction them forces blood through aortic valve through aorta and out to entire body
Process of Respiratory System
Breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide.
Nose to Trachea, passing into the right and left bronchial tubes (which has cilia). Then travels into alveoli.

Oxygen is the transferred by red blood cells into the bloodstream.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Extends beyond brain and spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System
(Peripheral Nervous Sys)
Sympathetic- active when excited or scared

Parasympathetic- active when eating or rest
Sensory-somatic Nervous Sys
(Peripheral Nervous Sys)
12 pairs of crainal nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia (collections of nerve cell bodies)

Controls Voluntary actions (Walking and Talking)
Dendrites
Receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons for interpretation
Axon
nerve cells connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid gilled gap called a synapse.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus
Enzymes
Chemicals that break down proteins, carbohydrates and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed
Salivary Amylase
an enzyme from the parotid salivary glands, begins chemical digestion of carbs.
Protease
an enzyme to begin protein digestion and increase the stomachs absorption of vitamin B12
Fat-laden Chyme
the mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach remains in the stomach
Carbohydrate-laden chyme
advances more quickly than fat laden chyme into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter,
Duodenum
(small intestine)
releases two hormones: secretin and cholecystokinin (CKK) Secretin travels to the pancreas to trigger release of bicarbonate, which neutralizes the stomach acid entering the duodenum. This triggers release of pancreatic enzymes that further aid chemical digestion. Initiates bile from gallbladder: while decreasing motility and acid production by the stomach
Villi
absorption of nutrients occurs through villi and microvilli increase the surface area within the small intestine.
Defenses of Body
fever, inflammation, phagocytosis (engulfing of pathogens by white blood cells), natural killer cells, interferons chemotaxis, and release of cytokines.
Fevers benefit body by...
killing pathogens that grow better at lower body temperature.
Inflammation
occurs as a response to irritating chemicals, heat, trauma, or infection by pathogens.

Signs: Redness, heat, swelling and pain
Natural Killer Cells (NK)
produce perforins (pore-forming proteins) that target cancer and virus cells. Perforins cause these cells to lyse (RUPTURE)
Interferons
the body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7 to 10 days. Interferons also activate macrophages and NK cells.
Chemotaxis
the method by which the leukocytes (white blood cells) respond to damaged body tissues
Cytokines
chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
Diapedesis
the process of white blood cells squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines
Active Immunity
an individual receives a vaccine that simulates an actual infection by a pathogen, stimulating the body to produce antibodies for future protection,
Passive Immunity
an individual dowes not produce his or her own antibodies, but rather receives them directly from another source, such as mother to infant through breast milk.
B Cells
produce antibodies
T Cells
are primarily responsible for recognizing nonself cells.
Macrophages
capture the nonself cells
Crude Birth Rate
the number of births per 1000 per year
Crude Death Rate
the number of deaths per 1000 per year
Immigration
an individual moving into a region or country to live (migrate into)
Emigration
an individual moving out of one region or country to live in another (migrate out of)