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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First four presidents of the USA
Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison
The "reign of witches" occurred during whose presidency?
The Alien and Sedition acts were passed when?
What did the Sedition act stipulate?
The Sedition act authorized the prosecution of virtually any public assembly or publication critical of the government.
When was Jefferson elected?
When was Adams elected?
When was the Whiskey Rebellion?
How many soldiers were dispatched by Washington to quell the Whiskey Rebellion?
Who was president during the Whiskey Rebellion?
When was George Washington inaugurated?
When was the Haitian Revolution?
When was the XYZ affair?
When was Madison inaugurated?
When was the Battle of Tippecanoe?
From what years did the War of 1812 span?
What was the Treaty of Ghent and when was it signed?
Ended the War of 1812. Signed in 1814.
When was the Battle of New Orleans?
When was the Louisiana purchase?
When was Marbury vs. Madison?
When did Hamilton and Burr duel?
When was the Embargo Act?
What were the five parts of Hamilton's plan?
1. Establish the new nation's creditworthiness.
2. The creation of a new national debt.
3. The creation of a Bank of the United States.
4. A tax on whiskey.
5. Imposition of a tariff and government subsidies to encourage the development of factories that could manufacture products currently purchased from abroad.
What role did Hamilton play in the Washington administration?
Secretary of the Treasury
What was the Jefferson-Hamilton bargain?
A bargain during dinner in which Jefferson brokered an agreement whereby southerners accepted Hamilton's fiscal program in exchange for the establishment of the permanent national capital on the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia.
What were "strict constructionists"?
Those who insisted that the federal government could only exercise powers specifically listed in the constitution.
What was Jay's treaty?
In 1794. Contained no British concessions on impressment or the rights of American shipping. Led directly to the formation of an organized opposition party.
Who was the head of the supreme court during Washington's tenure as president?
John Jay
Who was Washington's secretary of state?
Thomas Jefferson
Who was Washington's vice president?
John Adams
What was impressment?
The British policy of kidnapping sailors to serve in their navy.
What were the term lengths of the first four presidents?
Washington Presidency: 1789-1797 (2 terms)
Adams: 1797-1801 (1 term)
Jefferson: 1801-1809 (2 terms)
Madison: 1809-1817 (2 terms)
Who was Jefferson's secretary of state?
James Madison
What was the Naturalization act?
Extended from five to fourteen years the residency requirement for immigrants seeking American citizenship. Passed during the Reign of Witches.
What was the Alien Act?
Allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed "dangerous" by federal authorities.
What were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
Republican-backed resolutions that attacked the Sedition Act as an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment. Written by Madison and Jefferson.
When was Gabriel's rebellion?
What was Gabriel's rebellion?
A slave uprising in Virginia led by a Richmond slave blacksmith, Gabriel. A storm washed out the roads and the plot was discovered.
What was the significance of Marbury vs. Madison?
The Supreme Court had assumed the right to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution, a power known as "judicial review."
What is "judicial review"?
The right of the Supreme Court to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution.
What did Jefferson do when first in office?
He wanted to dismantle as much of the Federalist system as possilbe.

1. pardoned all imprisoned under Sedition act.
2. Abolished all taxes except the tariff, including the tax on whiskey.
3. Paid off the national debt.
Where does "extend the sphere" come from?
James Madison in Federalist no. 10
What was the Embargo of 1807?
A ban, enacted by Congress, on all American vessels sailing for foreign ports.
What was the Non-Intercourse Act?
Signed by Jefferson in 1809, banned trade only with Britain and France but provided that if either side rescinded its edicts against American shipping, commerce with that country would resume.
What was the Virginia plan?
Where was Prophetstown?
Who were the War Hawks?
A group of youngen congressmen calling for war with Britain. Included Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
When was Wealth of Nations published?
When was Common Sense published?
When were the Articles of Confederation drafted and ratified?
Drafted in 1777, ratified 1781
Who said "we have no Americans in America"?
John Adams
What was the "firm league of friendship" among the states?
Articles of Confederation
What powers did the Articles of Confederation grant to the national government?
Declaring war, conducting foreign affairs, and making treaties with other governments. Lacked the power to levy taxes or regulate commerce.
When and where was Shay's Rebellion?
1786-1787, Massachusetts
Who wanted an "energetic" government?
James Madison
When was the Philadelphia convention?
May 1787
What was the purpose of the Philadelphia convention?
To scrap the Articles entirely and draft a new constitution.
What six powers did the new Constitution give Congress?
1. Levy taxes,
2. borrow money,
3. regulate commerce,
4. declare war,
5. deal with foreign nations and Indians,
6. promote the "general welfare."
When did slavery cease to be a national institution?
On January 1, 1808, the first day that Congress was allowed to under the Constitution, it prohibited the further importation of slaves.
When was the Federalist published?
When was the Bill of Rights passed?
What was the "Revolution of 1800"?
When Jefferson and the Republicans won the presidency over Adams and the Federalists. Jefferson and his running mate received same amount of electoral votes, leading to Congress adopting the 12th amendment soon after that required electors to cast separate votes for president and vice president.
When was Gabriel's rebellion?
During whose presidential term was Marbury vs. Madison?
During whose presidential term was the Louisiana purchase?
During whose presidential term was Lewis and Clark expedition?
During whose presidential term was the XYZ affair?
What was Fries' rebellion?
In 1799, farmers in Pennsylvania obstructed a tax on land and houses. A crowd led by John Fries released arrested men from prison. Adams dispatched army, who arrested Fries for treason. The area never again voted Federalist.
During whose presidential term was Fries' Rebellion?
Who coined the term, "Reign of Witches," and where did it come from?
Jefferson, referred to events in Salem a century earlier
When was King Louis XVI executed?
When did the French and British war begin?
During whose presidential term was the Embargo Act?
Jefferson (1807)
During whose presidential term was the Non-Intercourse Act?
Jefferson (1809)
During whose presidential term was the War of 1812?
Who led the American forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe?
William Henry Harrison
When did British forces burn the White House?
What tribe was Tecumseh in and what role did he play?
He was a chief of the Shawnee tribe.
What was Macon's Bill no. 2?
During the Madison administration, Congress enacted this measure to allow trade to resume after the Embargo but provided that if either France on Britain ceased interfering with American rights, the president could reimpose an embargo on the other.
What was the movement led by Tecumseh called?
The Pan-Indian movement
What were the terms of surrender of the Indians after the War of 1812?
Required to cede more than half their land to the federal government.
What was the big reason for the downfall of the Federalists?
They could not free themselves from the charge of lacking patriotism after the War of 1812.
What was the Hartford convention?
A gathering of New England Federalists in 1814 to give voice to their party's long-standing grievances, especially the domination of the federal government by Virginia presidents and their own region's declining influence as new western states entered the Union.
Who was the "Indisputable Man?"
What were the three arguments against the Constitution?
1. No guarantee of rights
2. Centralized power far away.
3. Takes away States' power.
Why did the Federalists win?
Small states flocked to the Constitution, Washington's support, 88/100 newspapers favored constitution, *sovereignty in "we the people."
What event triggered the Alien Act?
the XYZ affair
What happened in the XYZ affair?
French Agents X, Y, and Z attempted to bribe American delegates, Adams wanted to go to war with France, triggered series of Alien Acts that severely impeded rights.
What is sedition?
Any speech or action tending toward insurrection.
Who was Matthew Lyon?
Inventor and legislator, Anti-Sedition-act senator who was the most "hated Republican in Congress" and was arrested, winning reelection while in jail.
Who was head of Jefferson's Judicial branch?
John Marshall
What was fiscal conservatism and which party was it associated with?
Means to never take on a debt to a foreign nation, and use gold and silver coinage. Was a Republican principle.
Was Jefferson a strict or a loose constructionist?
Strict constructionist
What was the Missouri compromise?
States with slaves prior could keep them, new states couldn't. During Jefferson administration.
What did Henry Clay advocate?
Internal improvements, protectionism, anti-British (Indian attacks)
What was protectionism?
?Mechanization, improving domestic production
What was Henry Clay's American system?
Internal improvements: transportation. Protectionism: tariff.
Who was John Calhoun?
Speaker of the House as a freshman in 1810
What did Calhoun think of Clay's American System?
Supported Clay's system, but South did not mechanize so turned against protectionism.
Who was Lalawethika?
Former alcoholic, leader of the Pan-Indian movement, brother of Tecumseh.
Who led the Battle of New Orleans?
Andrew Jackson
What were 2 elements resulting from the War of 1812?
1. The Era of Good feelings: Americans see USA as a nation that will last.
2. Most powerful alliance between two nations in world history: US and Britain.