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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Blacks and the meaning of Freedom
Whatever wasn't slavery was considered freedom. No punishment by lash, the separation of families, denial of access to educatio, the sexual exploitation of black women by their owners, etc.
The Freedmen's Bureau
Bureau agents were suppose to establish schools, provide aid to the poor and aged, settle disputes between whites and blacks and among the freedpeople, and secure for former slaves and white unionists equal treatment before the courts. 1865-1870.
Land and Labour
All that was requred to harmonize race relations in the south was fair wages, good working conditions, and the opportunity to improve the laborer's situation in life. But blacks wanted land of their own, not jobs on plantations.
Sherman Land
forty acre plots for rental and eventual sale to the former slaves. Andrew Johnson ordered them all back to their owners. A series of confrontations followed, notably in South Caolina and Georgia, where the army forcibly evicted blacks who had settled on "Sherman Land."
Emancipation Proc.
1863 - Abe Lincoln. Freed slaves from the rebellious confederate states of america.
13th Amendment
1865 - End of Slavery.
Radical Reconstruction
1866-73. Passed 3 Amendments.
13, 14, 15.
13 - Abolish slavery.
14 - Citizen ship (1868)
15 - Sufferage. Right to vote disregarding race. (1870)
Every Southern state subsidized railroads, which modernizers felt could haul the South out of isolation and poverty.
As modernizers, the Republicans believed that education was a long-term solution to the economic poverty and ignorance of the South. They created a system of public schools, which were segregated by race everywhere except New Orleans.
Vagrancy Laws
if anybody stops you on the street and you don't have a labor right you get sent to the plantations as a vagrat.
KKK Created
Wade Davis Bill
The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was a program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln's more lenient Ten percent plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union almost impossible since it required a majority in each Southern state to swear the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect.
10% Plan
all rebellious states to join the union. 10% of white must sign the oath.
Gilded Age
In American history the "Gilded Age" refers to the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era, from 1865 to 1901, which saw unprecedented economic, industrial, and population expansion. The era overlaps with Reconstruction (which ended in 1877) and includes the major depressions, the Panic of 1873. The era was characterized by an unusually rapid growth of railroads, small factories, banks, stores, mines and other family-owned enterprises, together with dramatic expansion into highly fertile western farmlands. Only the South lagged in prosperity, as it fell further and further behind. There was a great increase in ethnic diversity from immigrants drawn by the promotions of steamship and railroad companies which emphasized the easy availability of jobs and farmland.
McGruffy Readers
The McGuffey Readers reflect their author's personal philosophies, as well as his rough and tumble early years as a frontier schoolteacher. The finished works represented far more than a group of textbooks; they helped frame the country's morals and tastes, and shaped the American character. The lessons in the Readers encouraged standards of morality and society throughout the United States for more than a century. They dealt with the natural curiosity of children; emphasized work and an independent spirit; encouraged an allegiance to country, and an understanding of the importance of religious values. The Readers were filled with stories of strength, character, goodness and truth. The books presented a variety of contrasting viewpoints on many issues and topics, and drew moral conclusions about lying, stealing, cheating, poverty, teasing, alcohol, overeating, skipping school and foul language. The books taught children to seek an education and continue to learn throughout their lives.1836-1960
Ethnic CLeansing
In the United States in the 19th century there were numerous instances of relocation of Native American peoples from their traditional areas to often remote reservations elsewhere in the country, particularly in the Indian Removal policy of the 1830s. The Trail of Tears, which led to the deaths of about 2,000 to 8,000 Cherokees from disease, and the Long Walk of the Navajo are well-known examples.
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian Removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes.
Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny was a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean; it has also been used to advocate for or justify other territorial acquisitions. Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it was obvious ("manifest") and certain ("destiny"). It was originally a political catch phrase or slogan used by Democrats in the 1845-1855 period, and rejected by Whigs and Republicans of that era. Manifest Destiny was an explanation or justification for that expansion and westward movement, or, in some interpretations, an ideology or doctrine which helped to promote the process. This article is a history of Manifest Destiny as an idea, and the influence of that idea upon American expansion.
Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail was one of the key overland migration routes on which pioneers traveled across the North American continent in wagons in order to settle new parts of the United States of America during the 19th century. The Oregon Trail helped the United States implement its cultural goal of Manifest Destiny, that is, to build a great nation spanning the North American continent. The Oregon Trail spanned over half the continent as the wagon trail proceeded 2,170 miles (3,500 kilometers) west through territories and land later to become six U.S. states (Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon). Between 1841 and 1869, the Oregon Trail was used by settlers to the Northwest and West Coast areas of what is now the United States. Once the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, the use of this trail by long distance travelers diminished as the railroad slowly replaced it.
Battle at Little Big Horn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn — also known as Custer's Last Stand and Custer Massacre and, in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of the Greasy Grass — was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. It occurred June 25–June 26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory.
Dawes Act
The General Allotment Act of 1887 ((Dawes Act or Dawes Severalty Act), Ch. 119, Laws 1887, 24 Stat. 388, 25 U.S.C. § 331 et seq. (2000)) authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide the area into allotments for the individual Native American. It was enacted February 8, 1887, and named for its sponsor, U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts. The Act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906, by the Burke Act. (Pub. L. 106–462, title I, § 106(a)(1), Nov. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 2007) The act remained in effect until 1934.
Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee massacre was the last major armed conflict between the Dakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.[1]

On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire), surrounded an encampment of Minneconjou Dakota with orders to escort them back to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. The commander of the 7th had been ordered to disarm the Lakota before proceeding and placed his men in too close proximity to the Dakota, alarming them. Shooting broke out near the end of the disarmament, and accounts differ regarding who fired first and why.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict and government repression. Today it is actively organizing and numbers about 2000 members worldwide, of whom roughly half (approximately 900) are in good standing (that is, have paid their dues for the past two months). IWW membership does not require that one works in a represented workplace, nor does it exclude membership in another labor union.

The IWW contends that all workers should be united within a single union as a class and that the wage system should be abolished. They may be best known for the Wobbly Shop model of workplace democracy, in which workers elect recallable delegates, and other norms of grassroots democracy (self-management) are implemented.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - The act excluded Chinese laborers from immigrating to the United States for 10 years. Laborers in the United States and laborers with work visas received a certificate of residency and were allowed to travel in and out of the United States.
Literacy Act
A literacy test, in a strict sense, is a test designed to determine one's ability to read and write a given language. The term is often used, however, to refer to a test given to determine one's eligibility to vote. Literacy tests have also been used as a means to restrict immigration. The United States adopted a policy of administering a literacy test upon arrival in 1917 in order to filter out unskilled labor. The test was first proposed to Congress in 1897 and was declined four times before ratification. The high demand for cheap, unskilled, immigrant labor made the bill very difficult to pass in its early stages. But by 1917, the United States' views on immigration had changed and the literacy tests merely prefaced the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924.
Knights of Labour
The Knights of Labor was a labor union founded as a fraternal organization in 1869, by Uriah S. Stephens.
(accepted all skill level but not everybody).
Haymarket Riots
On May 1, 1886, labor unions organized a strike for an eight-hour work day in Chicago. Albert Parsons, head of the Chicago Knights of Labor, with his wife Lucy Parsons and seven children, led 80,000 people down Michigan Avenue in what is widely cited as the first May Day Parade. In the next few days they were joined nationwide by 350,000 workers, including 70,000 in Chicago, who went on strike at 1,200 factories.
On the American frontier, where the power of the police and the army was tenuous, lynching was seen by some as a positive alternative to lawlessness. In the Reconstruction-era South, lynching of blacks was used, especially by the first Ku Klux Klan, as a tool for reversing the social changes brought on by Federal occupation. This type of racially motivated lynching continued in the Jim Crow era as a way of enforcing subservience and preventing economic competition, and into the twentieth century as a method of resisting the civil rights movement.
Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy is a concept in foreign affairs stating that, in principle, all nations should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights. As a theory, the Open Door Policy originates with British commercial practice, as was reflected in treaties concluded with Qing China after the First Opium War (1839-1842). Although the Open Door is generally associated with China, it was recognized at the Berlin Conference of 1885, which declared that no power could levy preferential duties in the Congo basin.
American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in 1886 by Samuel Gompers as a reorganization of its predecessor, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions. Gompers was the president of the AFL until his death in 1924.
The AFL represented a conservative "pure and simple unionism" that stressed foremost the concern with working conditions, pay and control over jobs, relegating political goals to a minor role.[1] Unlike the Socialist Party or the even more radical Industrial Workers of the World, it saw the capitalist system as the path to betterment of labor. The AFL's "business unionism" favored pursuit of workers' immediate demands, rather than challenging the rights of owners under capitalism, and took a pragmatic, and often pessimistic, view of politics that favored tactical support for particular politicians over formation of a party devoted to workers' interests.
Booker T. Washington
1856 (born into slavery).

Urged blacks to not fight segregation.

1895 - Atlanta Speech
Populist Coalition
In some southern states, the populists made remarkable efforts to unite black and white small farmers on a common political and economic program.
Populist Movement
The Populist movement was a revolt by farmers in the South and Midwest against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties.
The fall of Populism
McKinley ultimately killed the Populists’ dream of free silver in 1900 when he signed the Gold Standard Act, stabilizing the value of the dollar to one ounce of gold. In 1897, McKinley also signed the Dingley Tariff to set overall tariff rates at approximately 45 percent.
The Bryan campaign of 1896 essentially marked the end of the Populist movement, for the Populist Party effectively became a part of the Democratic Party by throwing its support behind Bryan. In addition, in light of Bryan’s defeat, the election of 1896 marked the last time in which a major candidate tried to win by appealing to agricultural interests. McKinley’s victory ushered in a new age in American politics in which conservatives dominated: Republicans would control the White House for the majority of the next thirty-six years.
The Election of 1892
For the presidential election of 1892, the Republican and Democratic parties renominated candidates Benjamin Harrison and Grover Cleveland, respectively. In addition to the Populist candidate James Weaver, the fledgling Prohibition Party nominated John Bidwell. The Populists did surprisingly well, managing to receive over a million popular votes and twenty-two electoral votes. The unpopular McKinley Tariff ruined Harrison’s chance for reelection, so Cleveland was reelected, improbably becoming the first and only president to serve two inconsecutive terms.
The Rise of Populism
The Populist movement arose primarily in response to the 1890 McKinley Tariff, a very high tariff that particularly hurt western and southern farmers who sold their harvests on unprotected markets but were forced to buy expensive manufactured goods. To protest the tariff, these farmers helped vote Republicans out of the House of Representatives in the 1890 congressional elections.
Election of 1896
1896 - William Jennings Bryan delivers “Cross of Gold” speech William McKinley is elected president
(marked the beginning of the end of Populism)