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94 Cards in this Set

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Bity
the one of the bee/notrthern ruler
Nu-Swt
the one of the sedge plant/southern ruler
Wadget
cobra goddess. certifier of northern ruler
Nekhbet
vulture goddess. certifier of southern ruler
Horus
falcon god/certifier of unified ruler
Menes
1st per'o of unifed Egypt
Horus monarch
founded Memphis
NARMER PALETTE
Royal cosmetic mixing surface: ritually carved
Narmer (WHite crown) slays delta foe
Horus Grants victory over forts and foes
Narmer (Red crown)
unified egypt
Forms of Egyptian Royal Regalin
Hedjet,Deshret,Shmty, Ureret, Khepresh, Atef, Nemes
HEka(crook), Nekhakha (flail),Usekh
Hedjet
White Political Crown of Upper Egypt
Deshret
Red Political crown of Lower Egypt
Shmty
Double Political Crown of United Egypt
Ureret
Political Double Plummed crown (pre-Den)
Khepresh
Blue crown of war & Ritual Violence
Atef
horned Regligious crown with fertility symbols
Nemes
Golden Diadem (over cloth headpiece)
Heka ( Crook)
Leader ship
Nekhakha (Flail)
Disciplinary Authority
Usekh
Broad collar
Hieroglyphs
formal pictographics script ( invented 3100 B.C.)
Ideographs & Phonemic values added
Restricted to monumnetal use & Scared texts
Maintained throughout native domination
invention of the God Thoth
Alternate Forms of the Characters
Hieratic, Demotic, Coptic, Serekh, Cartouche
Hieratic
origanal abberviated signs for common use
Demotic
cursive script of 7th -5th cent. B.C.
Coptic
egyptian written w/ Greek alphabets
Serekh
proclaimer banner w/ Idol for per'o authorty
Cartouche
scared or royal oval name enclosure
Translators
Silvester DeSarcy
Jean F. Champollion
Silvester DeSarcy
Developed Demotic Sign List
Jean F. Champollion
Translated Hieroglyphs
Palermo Stone
Fragment of an Egyptian kings list
gives reignal years trhough dynasty V
Lists extremes of annual niles river levels
notes tax tours of the kings
shows cattle census results
records fashioning of major cult idols
names new cities built
useful in translating the hieroglyphs
Rosetta Stone
Priestly decree honoring ptolemy V
Employed Gree, Demotic & hieroglyphs
Brought to france my napoleon
Successfully used for translation studies
Seasonal Calendar of Egyptian Economy
June - September= Akhet(Inundation)/Corvee Work
September-February=Peroyet (Emergency)/Planting
February-June=Shomu(Drought)/ Harvest & Storage
Djoser
Old kingdom dynasty lll's 2nd PER'O
Stimulated Technological advances, great liberal art patron, sponsored hieroglyph reforms, the capital firmly set in Memphis, commissioned the stepped pyramid at saqqara, established notions regarded sacred rule
Imhotep
Djoser's cort physician, astronomer, cort sage, sculptor,master builder, Commissioned to design & build the 1st pyramid, constructed the stepped pyramid at saqqara, served as Zati to Djoser, made a minor God in saite period
Forms of egyptian royal burial architecture
Mastaba, Stepped pyramid, bent pyramid, true pyramid, vally of the kings
Mastaba
mud brick sepulchre for body of a royal person
Stepped Pyramid
Terred mastabas for a king's burial
Bent Pyramid
arc sided pyramid ( ex. Dashur's ) for king
True Pyramid
standard pyramid (ex. Giza) for pero's
Valley of the kings
tombs carved in to the cliffs for kings
Zati
"the man" pharaoh's chief adiministrative officer, empowered to direct national affairs for ruler, supervisor of the nomarchs, originally only open to highest born royalty, eventually bestowed on the best administrator
Nomarch
district governor over a nome, supervised the local governing officials, entrusted w/ regional military & police powers, conducted region's corvees & collected taxes, originally the local princes, eventually bestowed on able managerial types
Rokhu Suton
"perosn known to the per'o"
courtiers commissioned to intelligence cases
reported secretly & directly to the king
usually minor royalty
Son of Re Titulary Element
1) Appearance due to end of make line in Dynasty lV
2) Djed predicted Re would father triplet heirs by a human
3) Ruddadet bore Userkaf, Sahure, 7 Neferikare Kaki to him
4) they were born, flesh & blood to the kingship
5) they commenced Dynasty V & made the title permanent
Pepi ll
dynasty Vl's 4th pharaoh reigned 94 years
followed traditions of rulership in Ebypt
old kindom woes intensified under his rule
Reasons for the Collapse of the Old Kingdom State
1) cort intrigues at Memphis, over the succession, underminded authority
2) Disloyalty of the Nomarchs led to a collapse of governomental stability
3) Temple & sacred exemptions led to overburdening the poor masses
4) extended corvees caused thepoor to be ruined economically
Innovations Brought about Via the 1st intermediate perios
1) coffin texts made afterlife accessible to the Egyptians w/o pharaho
2) Execration Texts made it possible to magically control Egypt's foes
3) instruction itexts passed on an age's wisdom to future monarchs
4) Rhetoric became important for attaining power, wealth & status
5) Qenbet ( cort system) became more complex & toughened sentences
Table of Eloquent Peasant
This text documents the great stress placed on rhetorical skill and intellect by the post 1st I.P. societies. It is also proof of the type of social mobility possible, based on fitness to serve per'p
Mentuhotep ll
Horus pharaoh w/ throne name smatowy
he who unites the tow lands
ended the 1st I.P. by conquest & diplomacy. Began the middle kingdom w/ dynasty Xl, campaigned in Nubia, Lybia & Syria, great patron of fine & literary arts, intermediate period
Amenemhet l
Repeater of births, initially an upper Egypt nomarch, promoted to Zati by mentuhotep lV, elevated to kingship by administration, founded Dynasty Xll" began coregency, greatly enhanced the Nomes, built new capital & walls of the prince, Assassinated in harem conspiracy
Sesostris lll
Most dynamic middle kinddom pharaoh, divided the Zatiship, instituted overseer of fareign lands, reduced the power of the nomarchs, improved commerce 7 communications, seized Shechem: improved fortifications, built his pyramid at Dahshur, set up name with Mont Temple
Hekau Khasut
Prince of Foreig uplands, amorities, Hyrrians, & Assorted semities
used hittite iron technology & horses, held Egypt for 210 years ( 180 yrs. domination) ruled feudally from avaris, attributed authority to seth
Ahmose
completed the Hyksos expulsion from L.E., Reunified Egypt & consolidated New kingdom, Established Dynasty XVlll, led palestine/Syria campaign against semites, began consanguine marraige for legitimacy, professionalized the military, prefurbished canals & dykes for agriculture, expanede the osirian rites
Hatshepsut
Sister/consort to Thutmose ll
mother / regent to Thutmose lll
seized son's throne in 1503 B.C.. sent trading exepditions to Punt, built temple 7 Chaple of red granite, raised great obelisk at Karnak, suffered name erasures postmortem
Thutmose lll
Isis ( comcubine Isis) Mother
great Per'o militarly ( defeated mitanni King 7 Nubia's Forces)
Campaign annals at thebes temple, used political hostages to control foes, grand imperialist/set border on Euphrates, fine patron and public works builder, built 7th pylon and festival hall at Karnak
Ramese lll
Last great native Stock Pharaoh, repelled lybian invasion in year 5( along with foes libu, sped, meshwesh), halted sea people invasion in year 8 ( sheklesh, sherden, weshwesh, dened, peleset, tjekker)
added to temples at Karnk, sea expeditions launched for trade, suffered 1st sit down strike on record in year 29 over rations, survived harem conspirancy, negotiated secretly 1st ever peace treaty w. hittites, his is the best royal mummy yet found.
Cleopatra Vll
Queen of Egypt at age 19 with 12 years old brother PtolemyXlll
spoke 9 languages including Egyptian (1st Ptolemy to do so ) Dethroned in eunuch led conspiracy of Pothinus in 48 BC, allied with Gaius Julius Caesar and became his mistress in struggle for Egypt, restored to throne when Ptolemy drowned & Pothinus was slain, has son PtolemyXV called ceasarion for Ceasar, allied with Mark Anthony after Ceasar's assassination & callenged Oviavian, with defeat at Actium & Mark Anthony's suicide she poisned herself ( Serpent?)
Patranrch
theleader/owner of a tribe, clan, phartery (called "Abba")
Berith
Berith Karat ( Hebrew- to cut a cobenant)
type of suzerain/vassal theaty of the era
executed with ritual slaughter &
a perpetually binding legal agrement
blood sacrifice, tready permint legal agrement, to have a formual written and ritually enacted process called-Berith Karat
Formual for writing a Berith
Preamble
Prologue
Stipulations
treaty deposit
wittnesses
curses
blessings
Preamble
who is acting
Prologue
why they are acting
Stipulations
what must be done
Treaty Deposit
binding gifts, how it becomes permanment
Witnesses
who testifies that it was extered ino willing
Curses
how vilators get punished
Blessings
how you get rewarded
Abraham
of UR, ( the father is exalted), husband to Sari/Sarah( princess/his half sister), functioned as a patriarch of the Hebrews, his berith of 1820 was with Yahweh, it made his pople God's elect monotheists, ancient canaan was teh treaty deposit.
Joseph - Yoseph-El
son of Jacob/Israel ( Yoseph-El May God Add a son") Blessed as a diviner of Dreams, rewarded with Patriarchal Garment by father, (passim' indicates robe was floor length w/long sleeves), Sold into Egyptian Slavery under potiphar, Rewarded w/hyksos Zatiship for salvation plan, caused soem 2nd I.P. tribal settlement in Egypt
Yahwist "J"
composed bibical text, wrote inteh southern kingdom of Judah, cort sponsored oral tradition collartor, stressed salvation role of davidic dynasty, used Yahweh anarchronistically, has God anthromorphic, but divinely regak, has close God/human relationship, used non-first borns & females as leaders, hes regiona terms( canaanite, ishmaelite, sinai) economical, colorful style( for oral presentation) earthy & psychological in plot development.
Elohist "E"
composed bibical text, northernkingdom of Israel based, compiled edited "J" northern tradition & documents, stressed mosai tradition as salvation, used Yahweh only after it was revelaed, employed Elohim to that point, has God use intermediaries to act w/men, has regional terms ( Amorite, Midianite, Horeb) Folkstyle w/ foreshadowing & dramatic ending, liberally substituted northern Heroes
Deuteronomist "D"
Authored Biblical Book, Priestly based at main northern sanctuary, Levite legal & ritual focus in text, homilitic & priestly traditions fused, God is universal, Singular & Supreme, covenants are love acts of God, primarily for Succoth usage, unique pharase used.
Priestly Writer
Pentateuch's final author/redactor
synthesized "J" & "E" w/his editions, composed Leviticus & numbers, Jerusalem temple based, emphasized law, ritual,rites, ext. Geneaological interests, Yahweh is spiritual & remote, God is ominipotent, ominsicent, ominipresent, text styel is somber & Redundant
Torah
"to poingout" Authoritative direction, (from horah-to point out) Obligatory teaching regarding salvation, outlined substance of divine-human ties, leagal & Moral guides for lives of the elect, Judical, Ceremonial & moral codex
Targumim
Translation/interpretation, vernacular Biblical texts, Principally aramaic editions, used for home study/ teaching of the law, ( Babloian or Onkelos Targumim is the oldeest know. Jerusalem Targumim ll & Jonathan targumim employed. Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, Lamentations, Ester and Ecclesiastices/Crhronicales are main focii) Vernacular- way of speaking- common people
LaChish Ostrica
Sherds(21) w/written messages, letters to tell El-Hesy site, Yoash & Hosia Track Nebuchadrezzar ll, buried in gateway for security, excavated by J.L. Starkey, confirms ll Kings, Paralles ll Chronicles,
J.L. Starkey
finds the sherds
Mesha Stone
9th century B.C. Moabite stele ( tomb stone shape monuments w/text, W.Canaanite Text names Yahweh, says Yahweh delivered Jews to Chemosh & Mesha, King Omri of Istael was overcome my Mesha, closely paralles l kings 17
Philo Judaeus
of alexanderis Egypt, greatest intellectual in Alexandria, Jewish scholar/ambassador (to Gaius), Authored embassy to gaius, wrote antiquarian reconciliation of JEwish & Hellenistic Culture, Developed the logos concept in religion, expert on Judaic institutions & Life
Flavius Josephus
Great jewis historian, expert on the secrets of Judaism, learned in the law ( of Levite family), Ambassador to rome, Military Governor of Galilee, Defeated by Vespasian & titus, Becam advisor/secretary to Flavains, authored 66 A.D. Zealot revlot account, wrote antiquities of the Jews, author of against apion & vita
Sample Types of Biblical Analysis
Literary Criticism
Form Criticism
Redaction Criticism
Literary Criticism
Studies stylistic elements and terminology of text to determind authorship and sources with a fixed point in time.
Form Criticism
studies unique subtext items like: blessings, hymns,psalms, prayers, ect. to determinewho used what device, in what circustances, for what purpose(s)
Redaction Criticism
studies historical setting, philosophical currents, philogolical paraments, theological trends, ect. to determind how the text was formed, and what was the orginal meaning of it.
Amon
"That which is hidden" King of Egypt's pantheon, divine advisor to the Pharaho, patron God of Thebes 7 Khum, Ram headed or a great goose-zoomorph, Kings of gods, owns city, southern city of Thebes
Re (Ra) DynV
Principle sun god, creator of man in some mythic traditions, Pharaho's physical protection, dispute settler, Hawk headed patron of Heliopolus(son city) & Yun, father of all pharo's from 5th Dyn on always is pictured with a sun on him, god assocated w/ the law
Isis
Sister to Orisis, wife to Orisis, queen of Egypt's Pantheon, Great Magican(Knew Re's Secret names) Guardian of the Heir to the Throne, Protectressof Children,Mother of Horus,Saved Osiris from obliteration by Seth, must know the name of all things
Osiris
brother to isis, husband to isis, god of civilization, teaches the people, god of plant fertility, teaches how to raise crops, Mythical 1st pharaoh, 1st god king, 1st per's, netherworks ruler, abydos patron, mummified make w/death mask, crook & Flail, Seasons
Seth
Zoomorph-in to a hippo, brother to Osiris & Isisgod of wilderness, gets jellous of Osiris gets him drunk tricks him gets him in a box shoves blades in box killing him takes him out and chopings takes parts and flings the parts all over Egept and stils king ship
Thoth
Brother Isis, god of wisdome, the moon, writings & scribes, math, magic & medicine, healer of the damaged eye of Horus, Ibis headed patron of Hermopolis Magana
Horus
son of Isis & Osiris, Certifier of Legitimate Pharaohs of United Egypt, sky god whose eyes are teh sun and the moon, heir to his father osiris throne, avernger of osiris aganist Seth, falcon patron god of Nekhen
Anubis
Originally the Per'os god of death, creator of the Mummificatin process, Lord of hte Necropolis, weigher of the heart against Ma'At, son of Re& protector of Isis, Jackal Headed god.
MA'AT
Goddness of truth personified, giver of the Law, Counterweight to the heart in the judgment, Squatting female w/feather in hair
KA
divine immortal protective elements, hieroglyph is uplifted arms, survived death w/food sacrifices, originally possessed only by per'o personality, intellect & physiology
BA
Life activating force, animated the mummy w/opening of the mouth rite, hieroglyph is the Jabiru bird, immortal totem element of horus.