Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aortic arch found at what vertebral level?
T2 (pulsatile mass at T2-->aortic arch aneurysm)
alar ligaments
limit excessive movement of atlanto-axial jount (turning head "no")
what happens if transverse (cruciform) ligament tears?
(due to trauma e.g. Jefferson fx, or RA); allows dens to move within vertebral canal
dislocations without fracture are found only within what region of vertebral column?
cervical region b/c here the articular surfaces are inclined horizontally
"fish mouth vertebrae"
assoc'd with sickle cell anemia; central depressions seen radiographically in vertebral body
bifurcation of common carotid artery at what vertebral level?
cricoid cartilage at what vertebral level?
teardrop fx caused by?
hyperflexion of cervical region; e.g. from diving into shallow water, whiplash
Jefferson fracture
caused by compression of cervical region (force applied to top of head); fx of C1 at multiple sites, tear of transverse ligament
hangman fracture
hyperextension of cervical region
Chance fracture
thoracolumbar column trauma caused by hyperflexion of thoracic or lumbar region (e.g. seat belt injury); usually does not place spinal cord at risk
dorsal intermediate septum of spinal cord, where?
only above T6 (separates gracilus and cuneatus)
filum terminale is extension of what?
pia matter
interal vertebral venous plexus where?
epidural space
what happens if artery of Adamkiewicz ligated during resection fo AAA?
may result in anterior spinal artery syndrome: paraplegia, impotence, bladder/bowel dysfxn, loss of pain and T sesnation
dorsal primary ramus innervates what?
skin and deep muscles of back
thumb dermatome
upper neck dermatome
ring and little fingers dermatome
medial surface of leg, big toe dermatome
lateral surface of leg dermatome
dorsum of foot dermatome
poster surface of lower limb dermatome
lateral surface of foot dermatome
little toe dermatome
genitalia and anal zone dermatome
lumbar puncture needle passes through?
skn->superficial fascia-> supraspinous ligament-> interspinous ligament-> ligamentum flavum-> epidural space-> dura mater-> arachnoid-> subarachnoid space
how can breast cancer metastasize to brain?
intercostal vein-> external vertebral plexus-> internal vertebral plexus-> cranial dural sinus
what important structures cross rib 1?
subclavian a/v, brachial plexus
aspiration of peanut when sitting/standing
right lower lobe, lower portion
where does aspirated peanut go when supine?
right lower lobar bronchus, upper portion
where does aspirated peanut go when lying on right side?
right UPPER lobar bronchus, posterior portion
where does aspirated peanut go when lying on left side?
LEFT UPPER lobar bronchus, lingula
4 stages of inflammatory response in lobar pneumonia
1. initial (acute congestion, intraalveolar fluid, few PMNs, many bact.); 2. early consolidation/"red hepatization" (extravasated RBCs); 3. late consolidation/"grey hepatization"; 4. resolution
middle cardiac vein follows what artery?
posterior interventricular artery
small cardiac vein follows what artery?
right marginal artery
cell bodies of preganglionic parasymp neurons that decrease heart rate located where?
dorsal nucleus of vagus and nucleus ambiguus of medulla
cancer of scrotum metastasizes where?
superficial inguinal nodes
cancer of testes metastasizes where?
deep lumbar nodes near renal hilus (b/c of embyro origin!)
name the hernia: protrudes medial to inferior epigastric a/v, older males
direct inguinal hernia (thru Hesselbach triangle)
name the hernia: protrudes lateral to inferior epigastric a/v, medial and above to pubic tubercle
indirect hernia (more common than direct)
name the hernia: protrudes below and lateral to pubic tubercle
femoral hernia (more common in females, esp on right side)
is pancreas intra- or retroperitoneal?
head, neck, and body--RETRO; tail--INTRA
celiac trunk--at what vertebral level? major branches?
at T12; left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery
superior mesenteric artery at what vertebral level?
inferior mesenteric artery at what vertebral level?
gastric ulcers most commonly where?
in body of stomach along lesser curvature above incisura angularis
significance of prepyloric vein
makrs gastroduodenal jxn
who has longer vasa recta--jejunum or ileum?
what are Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses?
early indicators of pathology changes in gallbladder; mucosa of gallbladder penetrates deep into muscularis externa
MIrizzi syndrome
large gallstone impacted in cystic duct extrinsically obstructs nearby common hepatic duct
embryo origin of uncinate process of pancreas?
ventral pancreatic bud
embryo origin of pancreatic head?
ventral AND dorsal pancreatic buds
embryo origin of neck, body, and tail of pancreas?
dorsal pancreatic bud
lymph drainage of lower anal canal vs upper anal canal
lower--superficial inguinal; upper--deep nodes
arterial supply of lower anal canal vs upper anal canal
lower--inferior rectal artery (branch of internal pudendal); upper--superior rectal artery (br of inf mesenteric)
venous drainage of lower anal canal vs upper anal canal
lower--to IVC; upper-too hepatic portal system
contents of splenorenal ligament
terminal branches of splenic artery, tributaries of splenic vein, tail of pancrease
most common complication of splenectomy?
if superior wall of bladder ruptured (e.g. compression on full bladder) where would pee go?
peritoneal cavity
if anterior wall of bladder ruptured, where would piss go?
extraperitoneal extravasation of urine w/i retropubic space of Retzius (e.g. fractured pelvis in car accident)
where would piss go if urethra ruptured below urogenital diaphragm
superficial perineal space
Stage I RCC
confined to renal capsule
Stage II RCC
extends into perirenal spance but still confined within perirenal fascia of Gerota
extends into perirenal space with thrombosis to renal vein, IVC, or lymph nodes
which adrenal gland is shaped like pyramind (vs half moon)
right (left)
arterial supply of adrenals
superior suprarenal a (inferior phrenic); middle suprarenal a (aorta); inferior suprarenal a (renal a)
what is opsoclonus?
"dancing eyes"--rapid, irregular, horizontal and vertical movements; characteristic of neuroblastoma
contents of spermatic cord
ductus deferens, testicular artery, artery of ductus deferens, cremasteric artery, pampiniform plexus of veins, symp/parasymps, genitofemoral nerve, lymphatics
seminal fluid contains what?
fructose and choline
prostatic fluid contains
citric acid, acid phosphatase, prostaglandins, fibrinogen, PSA