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75 Cards in this Set

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what runs through greater sciatic foramen?
superior gluteal n/a/v, piriformis muscle, inferior gluteal n/a/v, sciatic n, internal pudendal v/a, pudendal n
what runs through lesser sciatic foramen?
internal pudendal a/v, pudendal n
what landmarks define pelvic inlet?
sacral promontory (S1), linea terminalis (pubic crest, iliopectineal line, arcuate line)
what structures are in deep perineal space of male?
membranous urethra, urogenital diaphragm (deep transverse perineal mm, sphincter urethrae mm), brr of internal pudendal artery (penis artery), brr of pudendal n (dorsal n of penis), bulbourethral glands
what structures are in deep perineal space of female?
urethra, vag, urogenital diaphragm (deep transverse perineal, sphincter urethrae mm), brr of internal pudendal artery (clit artery), brr of pudendal n (dorsal clit nerve), NO GLANDS
branches of thyrocervical trunk?
(off subclavian); suprascapular artery, transverse cervical artery, inferior thyroid artery
branches off axillary artery?
thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic, anterior humeral circumflex, posterior humeral circumflex, subscapular
branches of brachial artery
deep brachial artery (midshaft fx! with radial nerve), radial artery, ulnar artery
superior ulnar collateral artery anastomoses with ?
posterior ulnar recurrent artery (elbow)
inferior ulnar collateral artery anastomoses with ?
anterior ulnar recurrent artery
middle collateral artery anastomoses with ?
interosseus recurrent artery
radial collateral artery anastomoses with?
radial recurrent artery
5 major terminal branches of brahcial plexus
musculocutaneous n (c5-C7); axillary n (C5, C6); radial n (C5-T1); median n (C5-T1); ulnar n (C5-T1)
Klumpke injury involves what rami and damages what nerves
(lower trunk injury); ventral primary rami of C8, T1; damages ulnar and median nerves and sympathetic componeny of spinal nerve T1
Erb-Duchenne palsy involves what rami and damages what nerves?
ventral primary rami of C5, C6; damages musculocutaneous (biceps, brachialis), suprascapular n (infraspinatus m); axillary n (teres minor, etc); phrenic n
which nerve may be injured by fracture of surgical neck of humerous or anterior dislocation of shoulder?
axillary n
what happens if surgical neck of humerous fractured?
axillary n damage--> abduction of arm TO horizontal impaired (deltoid), lateral rotaiton of arm weakened (teres minor), sensory loss of lateral arm
which nerve may be injured by badly fitting crutch or midshaft fx of humerus?
radial nerve (->wrist drop)
what happens if midshaft of humerus fractured?
radial n damage--> wrist/finger extensors don't work but forearm can extend (triceps still ok), sensory loss of posterior arm/forearm and lateral hand dorsum
which nerve may be injured by supracondylar fracture of humerus?
median nerve (get benediction hand)
hand deviates to ulnar side on flexion suggests damage to which nerve?
median nerve (perhaps supracondylar fx of humerus?)
how test for integrity of median nerve?
have pt make OK sign with thumb and index finger
how does median nerve injury at wrist manifest differently than median nerve injury at elbow?
if the damage is at wrist, flexion of thumb is maintained b/c flexor pollicis longus muscle is spared (if at elbow, thumb abduction, opposition AND flexion are lost)
fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus might damage what nerve?
ulnar nerve (mild claw hand)
slashing of wrist on ulnar side might injure what nerve?
ulnar nerve (severe claw hand)
tendons of what muscles form rotator cuff?
subscapular (subscapular n), infraspinous (suprascapular n), teres minor (axillary), supraspinous (suprascapular)
acute rotator cuff tear usually involves which muscle?
supraspinatous (tendon)
what is Nursemaid elbow?
severe distal traction of radius (e.g. caused by parent yanking child's arm); can cause subluxation of head of radius from annular ligament
what important structures in cubital fossa?
median nerve, brachial artery, biceps brachii tendon, median cubital v, radial nerve (deep to brachioradialis muscle)
adduction at MP joint accompished by?
palmar interosseous muscles
aBduction at MP joint accomplished by?
dorsal interosseus muscles)
flexion at MP jnt accomplished by?
felxor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, lumbricals
flexion at DIP jnt accomplished primarily by?
flexor digitorum profundus muscle
what structures pass through carpal tunnel
flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, flexor digitorum profundus tendon, flexor pollicis longus tendon, median nerve (NO ARTERIES)
what structures can be damaged in suicide cut on radial side of wrist?
radial artery, median nerve, flexor carpi radialis tendon, palmaris longus tendon
deep laceration on ulnar side of wrist may cut who?
ulnar artery, ulnar n, flexor carpi ulnaris tendon
most commonly fractured carpal bone?
scaphoid
what tendons form anatomic snuffbox?
extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus
what is a Colles fracture?
posterior displacement of distal portion of radius. usually happens when person falls on outstretched hand with wrist extended; often also fracture of ulnar styloid process
significance of artery of ligamentum teres?
artery to the head of femur that is important to children b/c it supplies the head of the femur proximal to epiphyseal growth plate. after the growth plate closes, this artery becomes insignificant
in adults, what artery provides the main blood supply to the head and neck of femur?
medial circumflex artery (branch of profunda femoris)
branches of profunda femoris artery (3)
four perforating arteries, medial circumflex artery, lateral circumflex artery
branches of popliteal artery (continuation of femoral a at adductor hiatus)
genicular arteries, anterior tibial artery (with deep peroneal nerve), posterior tibial artery
what is the cruciate anastomosis?
collateral circulation around hip jnt involving: inferior gluteal a, medial/lateral femoral circumflex arteries, first perforating branch of profundus femoris
great saphenous vein travels with what nerve around which malleolus?
travesl with saphenous nerve anterior to MEDIAL malleolus
lesser saphenous vein travels with what nerve around what malleolus?
travels with sural nerve and passes POSTERIOR to LATERAL malleolus
which 2 nerves make up sciatic nerve?
tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve
sensory loss of femoral n injury?
anterior thigh and medial leg
positive Trendelenburg sign seen with injury to what nerve?
contralateral superior gluteal nerve
fracture of neck of fibular might damage which nerve?
common peroneal n
trauma to popliteal fossa might damage what nerve?
tibial nerve
clinical features of common peroneal nerve injury
foot drop, inability to stand on heels, walk with foot slap
clnical features of tibial nerve injury
inability to stand on toes, dorsiflexion/eversion of foot (b/c inversion/plantar flexion lost)
clinical features of inferior gluteal nerve injury
leaning backward at heel strike
sensory loss in tibial nerve injury
sole of foot
largest ligament of hip?
iliofemoral ligament (reinforces hip joint anteriorly)
which meniscus is C-shaped and more easily torn?
medial
what ligaments make up deltoid ligament?
(medial malleolus) anterior tibiotalar, posterior tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal
inversion/eversion of foot occurs at what joint?
subtalar
what ankle ligament most commonly stretched/torn?
anterior talofibular ligament (of lateral ligament)
what is a Jones fracture
avulsion of tuberosity of 5th metatarsal; commonly seen in inversion injury to ankle
specific injuries in Pott fracture (eversion injury)
avulsion of medial malleolus (deltoid ligament v strong), fracture of fibula
contents of anterior triangle (neck) (6)
common carotid artery, IJV, CNX, ansa cervicalis, sympathetic trunk, CN XII
contents of posterior cervical triangle (6)
subclavian artery, EJV, cervical plexus, brachial plexus trunks, phrenic nerve, CN XI
5 major cartilages of larynx
cricoid, thryoid, epiglottis, 2 arytenoids
all intrinsic muscles of larynx innervated by WHAT and what is the exception?
all but cricothyroid muscle (ext branch of superior laryngeal nerve of CNX) are innervated by inferior laryngeal nerve of CN X
what is the only muscle that ABducts the vocal folds?
posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
arterial supply of thyroid gland
superior thyroid artery (external carotid), inferior thyroid artery (subclavian's thyrocervical trunk), thyroid ima artery (from aortic arch in 10% of pop.)
what is the ligament of Berry?
superior suspensory ligament of thyroid gland
surgery on parotid gland may damage what nerve?
auriculotemporal nerve of CN V--> loss of sensation in auriculotemporal area
what is Frey syndrome
sweating whenever a person eats; due to aberrant regeneration of auriculotemporal nerve of CN V
what nerve passes through foramen rotundum?
CN V2
what nerve passes through foramen ovale
CN V3 and lesser petrosal nerve
what nerve passes through foramen lacerum
trick quesiton. this one is empty
which nerves pass through jugular foramen?
CN IX, X, XI