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201 Cards in this Set

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Dorsal Cavity
Includes the cranial and spinal cavities
Ventral Cavity
Includes the orbits and the nasal, oral, thoracic, and abdominopelvic cavities
Epithelial Cells
Cells that cover, line, and protect the body and its internal organs
Connective Tissue
Tissue that provides the body framework, support, and structure for the organs
Nerve Tissue
Tissue that is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells, commonly referred as neuroglia.
Muscle Tissue
Tissue that is classified as voluntary muscle (skeletal) or involuntary muscle (smooth and cardiac muscles tissues)
CELL Nucleus
Contains the DNA within the chromosomes. It contains materials for regeneration and instructions for its function
CELL Ribosomes
Organelles that read RNA produced by DNA and translate genetic instructions to produce PROTEIN.
CELL Endoplasmic Reticulum
Membranous organelle attached to the nuclear membrane and consists of ROUGH and SMOOTH areas.
CELL Rough E.R.
It is responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production. (CONTAINS several ribosomes)
CELL Smooth E.R.
It functions in detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules. (LACKS ribosomes)
CELL Golgi Apparatus
Its the packaging, processing, and shipping organelle. It transports materials from the E.R. throughout the cell
CELL Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion. Its packed with hydrolytic enzymes and can hydrolyze protiens, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids
CELL Vacuoles
It has many roles. Assists with phagocytosis, by creating a food vacuole
CELL Mitochondria
Produces cell energy (POWERHOUSE)
CELL Cellular Membrane
Most important component, it contributes to protection, communication, and passage of substance into and out
CELL Cellular Membrane Makeup
Consists of bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins peppered throughout
CELL Proteins
Proteins include enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body
Mitosis
Necessary for growth and repair. The DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly into two daughter cells
Meiosis
Cell division occurs in gonads area. It reduces its chromosome number from 46 to 23.
Mucous Membrane
Produces sticky and thick fluid called mucous (nasal, oral, intestinal, gastric, esophageal)
Serous Membrane
Smooth and thin layer of cells that produces lubricating fluid to reduce friction from muscle movement
Synovial Membrane
Tissue that lines on non-cartilage surfaces to provide separation and ease of movement between joints
Cutaneous
Skin composed of two layers, the epidermis and the dermis
Sudoriferous Gland
Produces sweat
Sebaceous Gland
Produces oil/waxy matter
Ceruminous Gland
Produces earwax or cerumen
Cartilage
Replaced by bone in embryonic development and is found mainly in joints, thorax, and various rigid tubes
Skin
The largest organ in the body
SKIN Epidermis
the outer-most protective layer of dead keratinized epithelial cells
SKIN Dermis
The underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures
SKIN Epidermal Structure
Layers from out to in are Stratum corneum, licidum, granulosum, and inner-most germinativum. Epidermal cells produce melanin
SKIN Dermal Sweat Glands
Contains two types of sweat glands, eccrine (regulate body temperature) and apocrine secretions (armpit and groin)
SKIN Dermal Sebaceous Glands
Sebum is the oily release to the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying
SKIN Appendages
Hair and nails that are composed of a strong protein called keratin.
What does the body framework consist of?
Bone, cartilage, and ligaments, plus the joints between the bones.
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Support, permission of movement, hemopoiesis, protection of internal organs, detoxification, provision for muscle attachment, calcium and phosphorus storage (mainly).
BONES Classification of bones
Long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones
BONES Description of a typical long bone
Irregular epiphysis at each end, composed mainly of spongy (cancellous) bone, and a shaft or diaphysis of compact bone
BONES Cells that form compact bones
Osteoblasts; when they are fixed in dense bone matrix, they stop dividing, but continue to maintain bone tissue as osteocytes
BONES Example of sesamoid bone
Patella
BONES Axial skeleton skull bones
28 bones in skull; 14 facial bones and 14 cranium bones; the mandible is the only movable bone in the skull
BONES Axial skeleton vertebral columns
33 vertebral columns; 7 cervical vertebrae; 12 thoracic vertebrae; 5 lumbar vertebrae; 5 scaral "fused" vertebrae; 1 coccygeal vertebrae
BONES Axial skeleton thorax cage
Sternum bones; 12 pair of rib bones
BONES Appendicular skeleton upper portion
Pectoral or shoulder girdle, clavicle, scapula, and upper extremity
BONES Appendicular skeleton arms
Humerus, radius, ulna, 8 carpals (wrist), 5 metacarpals (hand), 14 phalanges (fingers)
BONES Appendicular skeleton lower portion
Pelvic girdle or os coxae (consists of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis)
BONES Appendicular skeleton lower extremity
Femur, tibia, fibula, 7 tarsals (ankle), 5 metatarsals (foot), and 14 phalanges (toes)
MUSCLE How movement is produced
By contracting in response to nervous stimulation
MUSCLE How does contraction result
From the sliding together of actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber.
MUSCLE What does each muscle cell consist of
Myofibrils, which in turn are made up of still smaller units of sacromeres
MUSCLE What must be present for contraction to result
Calcium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
MUSCLE How does contraction occur
1. Nervous stimulation from motor neuron release Ca ion from sacroplasmic reticulum
2. Ca ion attaches to inhibitory proteins on actin filaments within the cell, moving aside that results cross-bridge between actin and myosin filaments
3. Using energy from ATP, filaments slide together to produce contraction
MUSCLE What type are the skeletal muscles
Voluntary muscles; they are under conscious control
MUSCLE What must occur for skeletal muscle to function
Must work in pairs
MUSCLE What is the name of the muscle that executes movement
Prime mover
MUSCLE What is the name of the muscle that produces opposite movement
Antagonist
MUSCLE What is the name of the muscle that cooperates with the prime mover
Synergist
MUSCLE What is a flexor muscle
Flexors reduce angle at the joint
MUSCLE What is a extensor muscle
Extensor increase angle at the joint
MUSCLE What is the abductor muscle
Moves limb away from the midline
MUSCLE What is the adductor muscle
Returns limb back toward the body
NERVOUS What does nervous system consists of
Brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves
NERVOUS What is the nervous system (part 1)
Vital system that perceives changes in external and internal environments to respond to the changes
NERVOUS Examples of perception
Seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and touching
NERVOUS What is the nervous system (part 2)
It makes body movement possible by supplying nerve impulses to skeletal muscles to contract
NERVOUS How does the nervous and endocrine systems work together
By correlating and integrating body functions (i.e. digestion and reproduction)
NERVOUS What actions of the nervous system depend
Transmission of nerve impulses over neurons, or nerve cells, the functional unit of the nervous system
NERVOUS What are the main parts of a neuron
Cell body, axon, and dendrites
NERVOUS How does a neuron function
Dendrites transmit impulses toward cell body, and axon transmit the impulse away from the cell body
NERVOUS What are the divisions of the nervous system
Central nervous system (CNS; consists of brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (PNS; consists of nerves and their branches)
NERVOUS What neurons transmit impulses from PNS to CNS
Sensory (afferent) neurons
NERVOUS What neuron transmits impulses away form CNS to PNS
Motor (efferent) neurons
NERVOUS What is the CEREBRUM responsible for
Sensory input and its associate with movement
NERVOUS What is the CEREBELLUM responsible for
Muscular coordination
NERVOUS What is the MEDULLA OBLONGATA responsible for
Controls many vital functions (i.e. respiration and heart rate)
NERVOUS Describe the spinal cord
Approximately 18 inches long, from the skull base (foramen magnum) to the first or second lumbar vertebrae
NERVOUS How many pairs of nerves exit the spinal cord
31 pairs
NERVOUS What are simple (spinal) reflexes
Nerve impulses that travel through spinal cord, but it does not reach the brain
NERVOUS How do most impulses travel
Through reflex pathways to and from brain in ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord.
NERVOUS Where does the sensory impulses enter
Dorsal horns of the spinal cord
NERVOUS Where does the motor impulses leave through
Ventral horns of the spinal cord
ENDOCRINE How does the endocrine and nervous system assist each other
Maintaining homeostasis and plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation
ENDOCRINE Where do the endocrine and nervous system meet
At the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
ENDOCRINE Describe the hypothalamus
It governs the pituitary and it is controlled by the feedback of hormones in the blood
ENDOCRINE What do both nervous and endocrine system achieve
They coordinate and control the body, but the endocrine system has more long-lasting and widespread effect
ENDOCRINE What are hormones
Chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells
ENDOCRINE What are some types of hormones and their objectives
Two major types, steroid and protein hormones. Most hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of protein synthesis
ENDOCRINE What are steroid hormones
They enter the target cell and have direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
ENDOCRINE What are protein hormones
They remain at cell surface and act through a second messenger, usually adenosine mono phosphate (AMP)
ENDOCRINE What is the main function of the endocrine glands
Production of hormones
ENDOCRINE What other organs produce hormones
Stomach, small intestine, and kidneys
ENDOCRINE Which areas release hormones during stress
Adrenal cortex, hypothalamus, and the posterior and anterior pituitary
ENDOCRINE What hormone is released by the adrenal cortex during stress
Cortisol; It reduces inflammation, raises the blood sugar level, and inhibits the release of histamine
ENDOCRINE What is another name for the pituitary gland
The master gland
ENDOCRINE Where is the pituitary and the hypothalamus attached
By a stalk called the infundibulum
ENDOCRINE How many portions does the pituitary gland have
2 portions; anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
ENDOCRINE What are the hormones called from the adenohypophysis portion
Tropic hormones; they act mainly on the other endocrine glands
ENDOCRINE What are some tropic hormones
1. Somatotropin (STH) or Growth Hormone (GH)
2. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
4. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
ENDOCRINE What are some hormones released by the posterior pituitary
1. Oxytocin (labor hormone)
2. Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH)
ENDOCRINE What are some other important endocrine glands
Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads (ovaries and testes)
BLOOD What components make up blood
55% plasma; 45% formed elements: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets
BLOOD Where are all formed elements produced
From a stem cell in the red bone marrow
BLOOD What is the main role of erythrocytes
To transport oxygen; oxygen is bound to the pigmented protein hemoglobin
BLOOD What distinguishes the five type of leukocytes
Size, appearance of nucleus, staining properties, and presence or absence of visible cytoplasmic granules
BLOOD What are white blood cells mostly active in
Phagocytosis (neutrophils and monocytes) and antibody formation (lymphocytes)
BLOOD What are platelets mostly active in
Blood clotting
BLOOD What are some of the functions of blood
Transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells, and to carry away carbon dioxide and metabolic waste
BLOOD What does plasma contain
10% protein, ions, nutrients, waste products, and hormones, which dissolve or suspense in water
BLOOD What is the function of the heart in reference to being a double pump
It sends blood to the lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary circuit and to the remainder of the body through the systemic circuit
BLOOD Where in the heart is the blood received
In the atrias
BLOOD Where is the heart is the blood pump to circulation
In the ventricles
BLOOD What are the valves between the aria and ventricle in the heart
Tricuspid valve on the right side and Bicuspid (Mitral) valve on the left side
BLOOD Where are the semilunar valves found in the heart
At the entrance of pulmonary trunk and the aorta
BLOOD How is blood supplied to the heart muscle (myocardium)
By the coronary arteries
BLOOD How is blood drained from the heart muscle (myocardium)
Drained into the right atrium through the coronary sinus
BLOOD What causes the heart to have an intrinsic beat
Its caused by the sinoatrial node; its transmitted along a conduction system through the myocardium
BLOOD What device can measure the electrical activity of the heart
An electrocardiogram (ECG)
BLOOD Define the cardiac cycle
Is the period from the end of 1 ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction
BLOOD Define systole
Its the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
BLOOD Define diastole
Its the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
BLOOD Define arteries
Carries blood away from the heart
BLOOD Define veins
Carries blood to the heart
BLOOD Define microscopic vessels
Known as capillaries; exchange take place between blood and cell of the body
BLOOD Where does the systemic arteries begin
From the aorta; which sends branches to all parts of the body
BLOOD Define arterioles
The smallest form of arteries
BLOOD How does blood reach the heart
Through the inferior and superior venae cavae; they empty at the right atrium
BLOOD Define the walls of the arteries
Thick and elastic; so they can carry blood under high pressure
BLOOD What causes vasoconstriction and vasodilation
It results from contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls; changes pressure and blood distribution
BLOOD Define the walls of the veins
Thinner and less elastic than arteries; they carry blood under lower pressure
BLOOD What mechanisms allow blood to flow back to the heart
Skeletal muscle pressure, expansion of chest in breathing, and valves in veins of the legs to keep blood moving forward
LUNGS What are the components of the respiratory system
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs with alveoli, diaphragm, and muscles surrounding the ribs
LUNGS Where is the respiratory center control in the brain
In the medulla oblongata
LUNGS What is the primary function of the respiratory system
To supply oxygen to the body and eliminate carbon dioxide
LUNGS What is external respiration
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli
LUNGS What is internal respiration
The exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells
LUNGS Define gas exchange pathway between nasal cavities and alveoli
To and from the lungs; gases travel both ways
LUNGS What is another service that the upper passageways provide
They warm, filter, and moisten incoming air
LUNGS What prevents debris and foreign substance from entering the lungs
Cilia; they line the upper respiratory tubules
LUNGS Define Inhalation
Contraction of the diaphragm, enlargement of the chest cavity, and draw air into lungs
LUNGS Define Exhalation
Passive process in which lungs recoil as respiratory muscles relax and thorax decreases in size
LUNGS Where is most of the oxygen carried
In the hemoglobin, inside the red blood cells
LUNGS Define hemoglobin and oxygenation
Oxygen is release from the hemoglobin when oxygen drops in the tissues
LUNGS Define carbon dioxide's role
Some are carried in solution or bound to blood proteins; Most are converted to bicarbonate ion by carbonic anhydrase within red blood cells
LUNGS What gas regulates the blood pH
Carbon dioxide; because the carbonic anhydrase causes a release of hydrogen ions
DIGESTIVE What does the digestive tube consists of
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
DIGESTIVE What are the accessory organs
Liver, pancreas, and the gallbladder
DIGESTION Define mastication
Chewing; ingested food in mouth mechanically broken down by teeth and tongue
DIGESTION Primary role of saliva during digestion
Lubricate and dilate chewed food; contains amylase, that starts the digestion of complex carbohydrates
DIGESTION Define bolus
A ball of food
DIGESTION What forces food from the pharynx to the upper portion of the esophagus
The constrictive muscles of the pharynx
DIGESTION Define the 4 main layers of the digestive tract
From inner to outer; the mucous membrane, the submucous layer, the muscular layer, and serous layer
DIGESTIVE What occurs when food enters the stomach
Gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid to break down foods; the stomach muscle churns and mixes the food
DIGESTIVE Define Chyme
Occurs after the stomach converts the bolus of food to a soupy substance
DIGESTIVE What organ stores food and regulates the movement into the small intestine
The stomach
DIGESTIVE Where does most digestion and absorption occur
In the small intestine; enzymes from small intestine, pancreas, and liver contribute to the process
DIGESTIVE Which accessory organ contributes water to neutralize acid from stomach
The pancreas; by diluting the chyme and bicarbonate ions
DIGESTIVE What are the three major regions of the small intestine
The duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum; nutrients are absorbed through these walls
DIGESTIVE What is absorbed directly into the blood
Amino acids, simple sugars derived from proteins, and carbohydrates
DIGESTIVE Where are fats absorbed
Through the lymph by the lacteals, which will eventually be added to bloodstream
DIGESTIVE Where do the nutrients travel after being absorbed by the small intestine
They travel to the hepatic portal vein, on route to the liver for decontamination
DIGESTIVE Define villi in the digestive tract
They are small finger-like projections that greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal wall
DIGESTIVE Define primary role of large intestine
Re-absorption of water and stores and eliminates undigested food; large amounts of bacteria are present, intestinal flora
DIGESTIVE What are the five portions of the large intesine
The ascending colon, transverse colon, desending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum
DIGESTIVE Define enzymes in mouth
Amylase - breaks polysaccharides
DIGESTIVE Define enzymes in pancreas
Trypsin and chymotrypsin - breaks proteins
Amylase - breaks polysaccharides
Lipase - breaks lipids
DIGESTIVE Define enzymes in small intestine
Peptidase - breaks proteins
Sucrases - breaks sugars
Amylase - breaks polysaccharides
URINARY What consists of the urinary system
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, a urinary bladder, and the urethra
URINARY What is the overall objective of the kidney
To filter the blood
URINARY What is the overall objective of the ureters
To transport the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
URINARY What is the overall objective of the urinary bladder
To store urine before urination through the urethra, then to the outside
URINARY What is the functional units of the kidney
The nephrons; small coiled tubes filter waste out of the blood brought to the kidney by the renal artery
URINARY Where does the actual filtration occur
Through the glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule; it occurs under the force of blood pressure
URINARY What occurs to the components need by the body during filtration
Water, glucose, and ions leave the nephron by diffusion and reenter the blood; water is reabsorbed at the tubules
URINARY What is the final product of the nephron
Millions of nephrons per kidney produces urine
MALE What is the male sex organ
Testes
MALE What is the functions of the testes
1. Produce gametes (sex cells)
2. Produce hormones
MALE What type of reproduction cycle does men have
Continuous; the gametes are formed by meiosis
MALE Where does the spematozoa develps
Within the seminiferous tubules of each testis
MALE Where does the production of testosterone occur
In the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules
MALE What are the responsibilities of the testosterone hormone
Influences sperm development and produces male secondary sex characteristics (i.e. body hair, deep voice)
MALE Where is the sperm stored
In the epididymis of each testicle
MALE Define the ejaculatory pathway
Sperm travels through the vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
MALE What glands facilitate the travel sperm by producing semen
The seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
MALE What part of the brain controls the testicular activity
Two hormones from the anterior pituitary, FSH and ICSH or LH
MALE What is the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) responsible
Stimulation of sperm production
MALE What is the Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) or Luteinizing Hormone (LH) responsible
Stimulation of the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
FEMALE What is the sex organ for the female
Ovaries
FEMALE What are the functions of the ovaries
1. Production of gametes (sex cells)
2. Production of hormones
FEMALE Which gland controls the activities of the ovaries
The pituitary gland via the tropic hormones
FEMALE What type of reductive cycle does women have
Cyclic; gametes are formed by meiosis
FEMALE What occurs each month for a women in her reproductive years
Several eggs ripen withing the ovarian follicles in the ovary, under the influence of FSH
FEMALE What occurs during the production of estrogen
It initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregancy
FEMALE What occur at approximately day 14 of cycle
LH is released from the anterior pituitary, which stimulates ovulation and the conversion of follicle to corpus luteum
FEMALE What does the occurs in the corpus luteum
It produces progesterone hormone, which will further stimulate development of the endometrium
FEMALE What occurs if fertilization is successful or a failure
Successful - the corpus luteum remains functional
Failure - the corpus luteum degenerates and menstruation begins
FEMALE What occurs during ovulation
The egg is swept into the oviduct or fallopian tube
FEMALE Where does fertilization occur
It occurs while the egg is in the oviduct
FEMALE What occurs after the egg has been fertilize
The fertilize egg or zygote travels to the uterus and implants itself within the endometrium
FEMALE What occurs after the egg has implated itself within the endometrium
The embryo is nourished by the placenta, which is formed by maternal and embryonic tissues
FEMALE What occurs during pregnancy
Hormones from the placenta maintain the endometrium and prepare the breasts for milk production