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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classification of living things in order of increasing specificity
Kindom, Phylum, class, order, family, genius, species
Kingdom determines
whether plant or animal
phylum determines
whether vertebrate or invertebrate
class can be 5 things
fish, amphibians, avians, reptiles or mammals
order determines
vegetable eating, or meat eating
example of family
cat or dag
example of genius
example of species
5 biological kingdoms
animalia, fungi, monera, plantae, protista
describe kindom animalia
complex, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that digest food outside of cells. mostly consume other organisms for nutrients.
describe kingdom monera
most primitive. encompasses all bacteria, single celled prokaryotic organisms
describe kingdom fungi
slime moulds, mushrooms, smuts, rusts, mildews, molds, stinkhorns, puffballs, truffles and yeasts. Absorb food in solution directly through cell walls
describe kindom plantae
multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that usually conduct photosynthesis.
describe kingdom protista
single celled eukaryotic organisms. more complex then bacteria, include protozoans and some types of algea.
the levels life organized from smallest to largest
atoms, molecules, supramolecular strucutres, cells, tissue, organs, organisms, populations, communities, biosphere
3 domains ( super kingdoms) of living organisms
bacteria, archea, eukarya
5 phylums under bacteria domain
proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, eubacteria, spirochetes, chlamydiae
describe proteobacteria
N-Fixed bacteria
describe cyanobacteria
blue-green bacteria
describe eubacteria
true gram positive bacteria
describe spiochetes
spiral bacteria
describe chlamydiae
intracellular parasites
describe the domain archea
prokaryotes of extreme environments
what are the 3 kingdoms under the archea domain
Creanarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Korarchaeota
describe crenarchaeota
describe euryarchaeota
methanogens and halophiles
describe korarchaeota
some hot springs microbes
what are the kingdoms under the eukarya domain
protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
methods that material use to enter or exit a cellular membrane
osmosis, diffusion, membrane transport proteins, recognizeable proteins
describe chromatin in the nucleus
combination of DNA and associated proteins floating in a liquid nucleoplasm, surrounded by nuclear envelope( lipid bilayer)
what hapens in the nucleolus
synthesis of ribosomal genes rRNA takes place
what does the endomembrane or cytomembrane system consist of
ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, golgi body, vesicles, lysosomes, peroxisomes
what do ribosomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
small structures made of RNA and protein that assemble protein chains. can be free in cytoplasm or bound to the ER
what does the rough ER do in the endo/ctomembrane system
sorts and modifies proteins chains delivered by bound ribosomes.
what does the smooth ER do in the endo/ctomembrane system
lacks ribosomes. site of lipid (membrane ) synthesis
what does the golgi body do in the endo/ctomembrane system
connects with the smooth ER , completes lipid synthesis and sorts proteins to their correct destination in small vesicles.
what do vesicles do in the endo/ctomembrane system
transport proteins and lipids to the cell surface, bring proteins and lipids to cell from cell's surface, digest compounds in lysosomes.
what do lysosomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
intracellular digestion
what do peroxisomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
break down fatty acids, amino acids, and alcohol.
what is a mitochondria
double membrane-bound organelle, makes ATP, contains it's own genome.
what is a chloroplast
in plants only, a double membrane-bound organelle, makes sugar from sunlight & CO2 during photosythesis, contains it's own genome.
what is the cytoskeleton made of and it's function
microtubules & microfilaments. provides cell shape and movement
what is centioles made of and it's function
may assist in cell division
what is a cell wall and what kindoms have them
a tough rigid structure in plants>made of cellulose. In protists>a variety of proteins. In fungi> chitin
what kingdoms are prokaryotic cells and what are the 5 features
archaebacteria & Eubacteria
very small, lack internal compartments and organelles, lack a nucleus, have 1 circular chromosome, tough external wall
what kindoms are eukaryotic cells and what r the 5 features
protists, plants, fungi, animals
subdivided by internal membranes, DNA enclosed by membrane-bound nucleus, DNA organized into chromosomes, cytoplasm surrounds the nucleus and organelles, plant cells & yeasts cells & protists have cell wall animals dont.
what is a nucleus
largest membrane-bound organelle w/in a cell. contains DNA. syntesizes RNA which directs the formation of proteins that sustain life, duplicates itself in order to reproduce.
what is a vacuole
energy storage housed w/in cytoplasm of cell. bound by single layer membrane. site of protein and metabolite degradation
what is cytoplasm
fluid w/in cell membrane contains substances that are used by the cell to create energy. 80-97% water
what is diffusion
passive process that allows nutrients, gases, molecules to enter and leave cell. can be passive or facilitated
describe passive diffusion
small molecules pass through the cell membrane by using only a small amount of energy
describe facilitative diffusion
aka active transport. when carrier proteins embedded in the cell membrane bind to specific substances, allowing them to enter the cell.
describe osmosis
a form of diffusion. when a large molecule is disulved in water in order to allow it too pass through a cell membrane.
carbohydrate chains are called
what are nucleic acids
part of the molecule inhereted through reproduciton, DNA & RNA.
what r the largest of the biological molecules
proteins are made up of how many molecules and what are they called
20, amino acids
what 3 types of fats/lipids r there
fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids
which of the 3 types of fats can either be saturated or unsaturated
fatty acids.
why is unsaturated fat in liquid form
because they contain 1 or more hydrocarbon bond in their hydrocarbon tail
why are unsaturated fats in solid form
because they have no double bonds.
what is a phospholipid
2 fatty acids bound to a phosphate group. 1 end of phosphate chain is polar, and the other end is nonpolar= the 2 ends are attracted to each other forming a barrier around the cell.
which fat/lipid type is often components of cellular membranes
what makes steroids nonpolar
they contain a large # of carbon-hydrogen molecules.
antigenic determinant
a surface feature of a microorganism or macromolecule, such as a glycoprotein, that elicits an immune response.
2 forms of asexual reproduction
grafting, budding
a chromosome that is not involved in sex determination
crossing an organism with one of it's parent organisms
agents, such as vaccines, that give immunity.
a malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue, which forms the skin and outer cell layers of internal organs
a substance that promotes a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy of a chemical reaction, but which itself remains unaltered at the end of the reaction.
catalytic antibody (abzyme)
An anitbody selected for its ability to catalyze a chemical reaction by binding to and stabilizing the transition state intermediate.
catalytic RNA (ribozyme)
A natural or synthetic RNA molecule that cuts an RNA substrate.
an antibiotic that interferes with protein synthesis
an organic molecule, such as a vitamin, that binds to an enzyme and is required for it's catalytic activity.
cross hybridization
the hydrogen bonding of a single-stranded DNA that is partially but not entirely coplementary to a single stranded substrate.
a measurement unti equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom.
density gradient centrifugation
high speed centrifugation in which molecules "float" at a point where there density equals that in a gradient of cesium chloride or sucrose
a deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3' hydroxyle group and is thus unable to form 3'-5' phosphodiester bond necessary for chain elongation
when are dideoxynucleotides used
in DNA sequencing and the treatment of viral diseases
dominant gene
a gene whos phenotype is when it is present in a single copy
dominant oncogene
a gene that stimulates cell proliferation and contributed to oncogenesis when present in a single copy.
the study of the interactions of organisms with their environment and with each other
a technique of seperating charged molecules in a matrix to which an electrical field is applied.
a method for transforming DNA. especially useful in plant cells. High voltage pulses of electricity are used to oopen pores in cell membranes, through which foreign DNA can pass.
an organism that lives inside another
flanking region
The DNA sequences extending on either side of a specific locus or gene
a microorganism that lacks chlorophyll
gene insertion
the addition of 1 or more copies of a normal gene into a defective chromosome
genetic marker
a gene or group of genes used to mark or track the actions of microbes
the structure of DNA that determines the expression of a trait
growth factor
a serum protein that stimulated cell division when it binds to it's cell-surface receptor
an X-linked recessive genetic disease, caused by a mutatin in the gene for clotting factor VIII or IX, which leads to abnormal blood clotting
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same linear arrangement of genes. a pair of matching chromosomes in a diploid organism
homologous recombination
the exchange of DNA fragments between 2 DNA molecules or chromatids of paired chromosomes at the site of identical necleotide sequences.
hydrogen bond
a relatively weak bond formed between y, a hydrogen atom (which is covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom) and a nitrogen or oxygen with an unshared electron pair.
in situ
refers ro performing assays or manipulations with intact tissues
incomplete dominance
a condition where a heterozygous off-spring has a phenotype that is distinctly different from, and intermediate to, the parental phenotypes.
a peptide hormone secreted from the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that regulates the level of blood sugar
a family of small proteins that stimulate viral resistance in cells
building block of DNA, RNA. consisting of a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group, together nucleotides form codons, which when strung together form genes, which link to form chromosomes
a class of lipid molecules in which a phosphate group is linked to glycerol and 2 fatty acyl groups
a clear spot on a lawn of bacteria where or cultured cells where cells have been lysed by viral infection
a molecule composed of repeated subunits
a polymer composed of multiple amino acid units linked by peptide bonds
a polymer composed of multiple units of monosaccharide (simple sugar).
primary cell
a cell or cell line that is taken directly from a living organism, which is not immortalized
an enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds that link amino acids in protein molecules
protein kinase
an enzyme that adds phosphate groups to a protein molecule at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues
a polymer of amino acids linked via peptide bonds and which may be composed of 2 or more polypeptide chains
recombinant DNA
the process of cutting and recombining DNA fragments from different sources as a means to isolate genes or to alter their structure and function
a member of a class of RNA viruses that utilizes the enzyme reverse transcriptase to reverse copy it's genome into a DNA intermediate, which integrates into the hostcell chromosome.
reverse genetics
using linkage analysis and polymorphic markers to isolate a disease gene in the absence of a known metabolic defect, then using the DNA sequence of the cloned gene to predict the amino acid sequence of its encoded protein.
subunit vaccine
a vaccine composed of a purified antigenic determinant that is seperated from the virulent organism.
the pairing of homologous chromosome pairs during prophase of the first meiotic division, when crossing over occurs.
Taq polymerase
a heat stable DNA polymerase isolated from the bacterium Therrnus aquaticus
the end of a chromosome
an autonomously replicating DNA molecule into which foreign DNA fragments are inserted and then propagated into a host cell.