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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Serves as the chief coordinating agency for all systems?
Nervous system
Includes the brain and spinal cord?
Central nervous system
Made up of nerves outside the CNS, includes the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves that carry messages away from the CNS?
Peripheral Nervous System
Include all of the nervous tissue in the body?
CNS & PNS
Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from the nervous system is called?
Effector
Muscle glands or tissues that carry out commands from the CNS?
Effector
Controlled voluntarily and all its effectors are skeletal muscles?
Somatic nervous system
The involuntary nervous sytem is called?
Autonomic NS
Also called the visceral nervous system?
Autonomic NS
Controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands which make up the soft body organs (viscera)?
Autonomic NS
Two subdivisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic NS
The controlling of involuntary functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing is a technique called?
biofeedback
Functional division of the nervous system whose control is voluntary,?
Somatic NS
Functional division of the nervous system whose effectors are the skeletal muscles?
Somatic NS
Functional division of the nervous system whose control is involuntary?
Autonomic NS
Functional division of the nervous system whose effectors are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands?
Autonomic NS
Functional division of the nervous system whose subdivisions are sympathetic and parasympathetic?
Autonomic NS
What are the two division of the nervous system based on structure?
CNS and PNS
Functional cells of the NS are highly specialized cells called?
neurons
Contains the cell body, the nucleus and other organelles typically found in cells?
main portion of a neuron
A distinguishing feature of the neurons are?
The threadlike fibers that extend out from the cell body and carry impulses across the cell.
The neuron has how many types of fibers?
2, axon and dendrite
Type of nerve fiber that is highly branched (resembles a tree) and conducts impulses to the cell body?
Dendrites
Comes from the greek word meaning tree?
Dendrites
Dendrites function as ?
receptors in the NS
Type of neuron fiber that receives the stimulus that begins a neural pathway?
dendrites
Type of neuron fiber that conduct impulses AWAY FROM the cell bosy?
Axon
A single fiber that is long and branches at its ends and delivers impulses to another neuron, a muscle, or a gland?
Axon
Fatty material that covers some axons?
myelin
Insulates and protects the axon nerve fiber?
myelin
In the PNS, a special type of connective tissue cell wrapping around the axon like a jelly roll, depositing layers of myelin?
Schwann cells (shvahn)
Small spaces between the individual cells?
nodes
Important in speeding the conduction of nerve impulses?
nodes
The outermost membrane of the Schwann cell from a thin coating known as?
Neurilemma
The covering that is a part of the mechanism by which the PNS nerves repair themselves?
neurilemma
Because the brain and spinal cells are non-neurilemma, they cannot?
regenerate themselves, they die
Called white fibers and found in white matter?
myelinated axons
Grey matter is not covered with?
myelin
The job of the neurons in the PNS is to relay information constantly either to or from the?
CNS
Neurons that conduct impulses TO (toward)the spinal cord and brain?
sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are also known as?
Afferent neurons
Neuron cells that carry impulses FROM (Away) the CNS to muscles and glands is?
motor neurons
Motor neurons are also called?
efferent neurons
Neurons that relay information within the CNS are called?
interneurons or central or associated neurons
A bundle of fibers located within the PNS is known as a?
nerve
A bundle of nerve fibers located within the CNS are a?
tract
Located in both the brain and the spinal cord where they carry impulses to and from the brain?
Tract
Individual nerve fibers organize into bundles or?
Fascicles
Located around each individual fiber?
Endoneurium
Located around a fascicle?
Perineurium
Located around the whole nerve?
Epineurium
A nerve may contain all______, all______ or a combination of both?
Sensory and motor
Cranial nerves containing only sensory fibers?
Sensory (afferent) nerves
Cranial nerves containing only motor fibers?
Motor (efferent) nerves
Most of the crainial and spinal nerves contain both ________ and _______ fibers?
Motor and Sensory
Combination nerves with both motor and sensory nerves are called?
Mixed nerves
Cells that serve as support and protection?
Neuroglia or glial cells
From the greek word meaning Glue?
Neuroglia or glial cells
Neuroglia or glial cells specialise in functions PARSA?
P=protect nervous tissue
A=Aid in repair of cells
R=Regulate the composition of fluids around and between cells
S= Support nervous tissue and bind it to other structures
A=Act as phagocytes to remove pathogens and impurities
List a type of neuroglia?
Schwann cell
A type of neuroglia that is named for its starlike shape and attaches to capillaries and help protect the brain from harmful substances?
Astrocytes
What is the difference between neuroglia and neurons?
Neuroglia continue to multiply throughout life, neurons do not
The noncoducting cells of the NS are called?
neuroglia or glial cells
The plasma membrane of an unstimulated (resting) neuron carries an electrical charge or?
Potential
The resting_______is maintained by ions concentrated on either side of the membrane?
Potential
The_____ ______ works by means of electrical impulses sent along neuron fibers and transmitted from cell to cell at highly specialized junctions?
Nervous System
Ions maintain the _______potential?
Resting
At rest, the inside of the plasma membrane is _______as compared with the outside?
Negative
When the inside of the membrane is negative as compared with the outside is called?
Polarization
The nerve impulses potential can be compared to a _____ with opposite charges on either side, waiting for the chance for each charge to move toward each other thus producing electricity?
Battery
Starts with a local reversal in the membrane potential caused by changing the ion concentration on either side?
Nerve impulses
The sudden electrical change at the membrane is called?
Action potential
At rest which ions are more concentrated on the outside of the membrane?
Na+
At rest, which ions are more concentrated on the inside of the membrane?
K+
A stimulus of adequate force, such as electrical, chemical, or mechanical energy, causes spcific channels in the membrane to open up and allow?
Na+ ions to flow into the cell
When Na+ diffuse into the cell, they raise the charge on the inside of the membrane, a charge known as?
Depolarization
As the electrical charge returns to its resting value, the membrane is undergoing________?
Repolariztion
During repolarization, which ion open to leave the cell?
K+ (potassium)
What form of transport during repolarization is used to move Na+ and K+ back to either side of the membrane so they can be stimulated again?
Active transport (against the grain)
What is the activity descirbed as when the Na+ and K+ are trasported back to the resting potential?
Na+/K+ pump
Any force that can start an action potential by opening membrane channels allowing Na+ to enter cell?
Stimulus
The channels in the resting potential are "voltage dependent", that is they respond to?
Electrical stimulus
If the axon fiber is not myelinated, the action potential spreads_________ along the membrane of the cell?
Continously
Myelin acts as an _______ to prevent the spread of current along the membrane?
Insulater
The myelinated fibers speed up the conduction forcing the action potential to?
Jump like a spark from a node to node along the sheath
This type of conduction is actually faster than continous conduction?
Jump (myelinated fibers)
An action potential occures in two stages, what are they called?
Depolarization and Repolarization
In the first stage of action potential the charge on the membrane?
Reverses (Na+ which is more concentrated on the oustide diffused to the inside)
In the second stage of action potential, What returns to the resting state?
Na+ and K+ concentration are restored to pre-depolariztion more Na+ on outside and more K+ on inside.
What ions are involved in generating an action potentail?
Na+ and K+
During repolarization what happens to K+?
K+ leaves the cell
The point of junction for transmitting the nerve impulse is?
Synapse
Comes from the Greek word "to clasp"?
Synapse
Impulses must be ________between neurons to convey information withing the nervous system?
Tranferred
The end bulb of the presynaptic (transmitting) axon has?
Vesicles containing neurotransmitter
The neurotransmitter in the vesiciles at the end-bulb of the presynaptic axon are released into?
The sypantic cleft
When the neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft, what is the next step of its journey?
It is relased from the presynaptic axon into the synaptic cleft, and to the membrane of the postsynaptic membrane to the dendrite of the neuron
At the synapse, transmission of an impulse usually occurs from the axon of one cell or ________ to the _________ of another cell or ______?
presynaptic membrane
dendrite
postsynaptic membrane
The axon is the ________ of the neuron, while the dendrite is the________ of the neuron?
Transmission side,
reception side
A tiny gap between cells used to pass information from the axon of one cell to the dendrite of another?
Synaptic cleft
The information usually crosses the syneptic cleft in the form of a chemical known as?
Neurotransmitter
During resting potential, neurotransmitters are stored within small vesicles where?
end-bulbs, or terminal bulbs of the axon
Enlarged endings of the axons are called?
end-bulbs, or terminal bulbs
Special sites that pick-up and respond to the neurotransmitter information other than the receiving dendrite?
Receptor
Receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane influence?
how or if that cell will respond to a given transmitter
The main neurotransmitters are?
Epinephrine or adrenaline
norepinephrine or noradrenaline, and acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular juntion?
ACh (acetlycholine)
Epinephrine, adrenaline, and acetylcholine are all part of which system?
Autonomic Nervous System
Chemicals are needed to carry information across the synaptic cleft, as a group what all these chemicals called?
Neurotransmitters
The cells ______is based on the total effects of all the neurotransmitters it recieves at any one time?
Response
After the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft, what are the removal methods?
the chemical will slowly diffuse away, be destroyed by enzymes in the cleft, reuptake process
The method of removal helps determine how long a neurotransmitter will?
Act
Two types of action the neurotransmitter is capable of?
Inhibitory and excitatory
Not all synapses are chemically controlled, why?
The electrical energy
travels directly from one cell to another (constant coordinated communication)
The link between the PNS and the brain is?
Spinal Cord
Helps to coordinate the impulses in the CNS?
Spinal Cord
The spinal cord has a small irregularly shaped internal section of?
grey matter (unmyelinated) and white matter (myelinated)
The column of grey matter in the spinal cord extends up and down_____?
dorsally, on each side
The ventral region of the spinal colum also has a set of columnar grey matter on wither side called?
Ventral horns
The dorsal grey matter column are called?
Dorsal horns
The dorsal and ventral horns give the grey matter an ___
appearance in cross-section?
H
The bridge of the grey matter that connects the right and left horns is called?
grey commissure
A small channel within the grey commissure is?
central canal
This part of the spinal column contains the cerebrospinal fluid?
Central canal
The liquid that circulates around the brain and the spinal cord?
Cerebrospinal fluid
A narrow groove that separates the right and the left portions of the posterior white matter?
Posterior median sulcus
A deep groove that seperates the R and L portions of the anterior white matter?
Anterior median fissure
The spinal cord is the pathway for sensory and motor impulses to?
Travel
Two types of tracts that carry nerve impulses?
Ascending and descending
The descending tract carries what type of impulses?
Motor (efferent)(towards)
The ascending tract carries what type of impulses?
Sensory (afferent)(Away)
The spinal cord contains both grey and white matter, how are these tissues arranged in the spinal column?
the ventral and dorsal horns run parallel with the spinal cord, positioned to make an H shape
What is the purpose of the tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord?
To carry select nerve impulses to an from the brain
The nervous systems receives and acts on both _____ and ____ stimuli?
Internal and External
A complete pathway form the stimulus to effector is termed a?
Reflex arc
The basic functional pathway of the nervous systems is?
The reflex arc
List the parts of a reflex arc?
Receptor, Sensory neuron, CNS, motor neuron, effector
Sensory impulses enter which horn of the spinal cord?
Dorsal (from senses to brain)
Where impulses are coordinated and response is organized describes what nervous system?
CNS
Motor impulses enter the spinal cord through which horn?
Ventral Horn
A muscle or gland outside the CNS that carries out a response?
Effector
Is a rapid, uncomplicated and automatic response involving very few neurons?
A simple reflex
A given stimulus that always produces the same response or?
reflex
A simple reflex arc that passes through the spinal cord alone and does not involve the brain is termed?
Spinal reflex
Type of spinal reflex in which a muscle is stretched and responds by contracting is?
stretch reflex (knee-jerk, when the doctor tests your reflex with the rubber hammer on patellar tendon)
Which muscle contracts eliciting the knee-jerk reflex?
Quadriceps femoris
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31 pairs
How are the spinal nerves numbered?
They are numbered according to the level of each spinal cord from which it arises
(cervical, thoraci, etc)
Each nerve is attached to the spinal cord by how many roots?
2
What are the nerve roots called that each nerve is attached?
Dorsal and ventral root
The marked swelling of grey matter on the dorsal root is called?
Dorsal root ganglion
A collection of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS?
A ganglion
Sensory fibers throught the body lead to the _______ _____ ______?
Dorsal root ganglia
The ventral root of the spinal nerves are a combination of?
motor (efferent) fibers, and muscles and glands (effectors)
All spinal nerves are considered which type of nerve?
mixed, because of the motor and sensory (efferent, and afferent)
Spinal branches anteriorly interlace to form networks called?
Plexuses
The plexuses distribute branches to all parts of the _____?
Body
Three main plexuses?
Cervical plexus, brachial plexus, and lumbosacral plexus (sciatic nerve)
Distinct regions of the skin that are supplied by a single spinal nerve?
dermatome