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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
perception
how we organize or experience what our sensory systems pick up
nativist theory
perception and cognition are largely innate
structuralist theory
asserts that perception is the sum total of sensory input. The world is understood through bottom-up processing
gestalt psychology
revolves around perception and asserts that people tend to see the world as comprised of organized wholes. The world is understood through top-down processing
current thinking on perception
partially innate/sensory and partially learned/conceptual
perceptual development
increasing ability of a child to make finer discriminations among stimuli.
James Gibson
describes perceptual development
optic array
all the things a person sees. In perceptual development, trains people to perceive
visual field
entire span that can be perceived or detected by the eye at a given moment
figure and ground relationship
relationship between the meaningful part of a picture (the figure) and the background (ground)
depth perception
has monocular and binocular cues
binocular disparity
most important depth cue. Eyes view objects from 2 slightly different angles, which allow us to create a 3-D picture
apparent size
Depth cue. Gives clues about how far an object is if we know about how big the object should be.
interposition
depth cue. Overlap of objects shows which objects are closer.
linear perspective
depth cue. Gained by features we are familiar with, such as 2 seemingly parallel lines that converge with distance.
texture gradient
depth cue. How we see texture or fine detail differently from different distances
motion parallax
depth cue. How movement is perceived through the displacement of objects over time, and how this motion takes place at seemingly different paces for nearby or faraway objects.
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk
developed visual cliff
visual cliff
apparatus to study whether depth perception is innate. Thick layer of glass above surface that drops off sharply. Animals and babies were used as subjects and both groups avoided moving into the "cliff" area
afterimages
aka McCollough effect. Perceived because of "fatigued receptors". Because our eyes have a partially oppositional system for seeing colours, such as red-green receptors, once one side is overstimulated and fatigued, it can no longer respond and is overshadowed by its opposite. Explains why you see a dark afterimage after staring at a white light.
dark adaptation
result of regeneration of retinal pigment
mental set
factors into why we see what we expect to see
Pragnanz
overarching Gestalt idea that experience will be organized as meaningful, symmetrical, and simply whenever possible.
closure
Gestalt idea describing the tendency to complete incomplete figures
proximity
Gestalt idea describing the tendency to group together items that are near each other
continuation
aka good continuation. Gestalt idea describing the tendency to create a whole or detailed figure based on our expectations rather than what is seen.
symmetry
Gestalt idea describing the tendency to make figures out of symmetrical images
constancy
Gestalt idea describing how people perceive objects in the way that they are familiar with them, regardless of changes in the actual retinal image. e.g. book is perceived as rectangular in shape no matter what angle it is seen from.
size constancy
e.g. knowing that an elephant is large no matter how it might appear
color constancy
e.g. knowing the color of an object even with tinted glasses on
minimum principle
tendency to see what is easiest or logical to see
ambiguous figures
classic illusions which can be perceived as 2 diff things depending on how you look at them
figure-ground reversal patterns
classic illusions which are ambiguous figures, such as the Rubin vase. Can be perceived as 2 diff things depending on which part you see as the background
impossible objects
classic illusions which are objects that have been drawn and can be perceived but are geometrically impossible
moon illusion
classic illusion that shows how context affects perception. Moon looks larger when we see it on the horizon than when we see it in the sky. This is because the horizon contains visual cues that make the moon seem more distant than the overhead sky. In the overhead sky, we cannot correct for distance when we perceive the size of the moon because we have no cues to work with.
Phi phenomenon
classic illusion in which there is a tendency to perceive smooth motion. Explains why motion is inferred when there actually is none, often by the use of flashing lights or rapidly shown still-frame pictures. This is "apparent motion"
apparent motion
motion is inferred when there is none
Muller-Lyer illusion
most famous visual illusion. 2 horizontal lines of equal length appear unequal because of the orientation of the arrow marks at their ends. Inward facing arrowheads make the line appear shorter than another line with outward facing arrowheads.
Ponzo illusion
classic illusion in which 2 horizontal lines of equal length appear unequal because of 2 vertical lines that slant inward
autokinetic effect
classic illusion in which a single point of light viewed in darkness appears to shake or move. Happens because of the constant movements of our own eyes.
Purkinje shift
classic illusion in which perceived color brightness changes with the level of illumination in the room. With lower levels of illumination, the extremes of the color spectrum (especially red) are seen as less bright.
pattern recognition
most often explained by "template matching" and "feature detection". In order to pick out the letter o out of a page of letters, we would probably first concentrate only on letters with rounded edges and then look for one to match a typical o.
Robert Fantz
found that infants prefer relatively complex and sensical displays
absolute threshold
minumum amount of a stimuli that can be detected 50 percent of the time
differential threshold
aka just noticeable difference or jnd. Minimum difference that must occur between 2 stimuli in order for them to be perceived as having different intensities.
E.B. Weber
defined the differential threshold, aka jnd
terminal threshold
upper limit after which the stimuli can no longer be perceived. e.g. highest pitch sound a human can hear (the lowest pitch would be the absolute threshold)
Weber's law
applies to all senses but only to a limited range of intensities. States that a stimulus needs to be increased by a constant fraction of its original value in order to be noticed as noticeably different. Formula is:

K(the constant factor) = Δ I(increase in intensity needed for jnd) / I(original intensity)
Fechner's law
built on and more complicated than Weber's law. Says that the strength of a stimulus must be significantly increased to produce a slight difference in sensation. Law is written as S(sensation strength) = k log R(a logarithm of the original intensity)
J.A. Swet's Theory of Signal Detection (TSD)
suggests that subjects detect stimuli not only becaue they can but also because they want to. Factors motivation into the picture, which changes the idea of purely mathematical equations and explains why subjects respond inconsistently.
response bias
Individuals are partly motivated by rewards and costs in detection. The interplay between response bias and stimulus intensity determines response
false alarm
saying that you detect a stimulus that is not there
hit
correctly sensing a stimulus
miss
failing to detect a present stimulus
correct rejection
rightly stating that no stimulus exists
receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves
these curves are graphical representations of a subject's sensitivity to a stimulus
simulations
perceptual cues to make artificial situations seem real
dichotic presentation
often used in studies of auditory perception and "selective attention". A subject is presented with a diff verbal message in each ear. Often subjects are asked to "shadow" one of the messages to ensure that the other message is not consciously attended to
shadow
repeat
subliminal perception
perceiving a stimulus that one is not consciously aware of, such as the unattended message in dichotic presentation or visual information that is briefly presented.