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32 Cards in this Set

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Statistics
The study of numerical data to determine relationships that exist among the data.
Datum
The singular form of Data (a collection of information)
Outliers
Unusually small or large bits of datum in a data set. e.g., in the set {2,5,3,6,99,7}, "99" is an outlier.
Landmarks
Measures used to interpret numerical data. e.g. Maximum, Minimum, Range, Mode, Median, and Mean.
Maximum
The largest value in a set of data
Minimum
The smallest value in a set of data
Range
The difference between the maximum and the minimum in a set of data
Mode
The value (or values) that occurs most frequently or oftne in a data set. If there is no mode, indicates this by writing "no mode" or "non". DO NOT USE "0" unless the actual mode in the data set is the number "0".
Mean (Arithmetic Mean, Average)
The arithmetic average of the values in a data set
Median
The middle value in a set of data
Central Tendency
Inclination towards the center or middle of a data set. Mean and Median are common measures of central tendency.
Frequency
The measure of the number of times an event occurs.
Frequency Table
A table used to display data, similar to a Tally Chart, but total numbers are included to help the reader count the dash marks.
Tally Chart
A table used to organize data. Indicates data using tallies (dashes).
Line Plot
A graphical method used to organize data using one axis and 'x' marks.
Survey
A detailed study use to gather and analyze data. Data is typically collected through interviews, discussions or questionnaires. The source of the information should be mentioned. Follow standard works cited notation.
Sample
A part from a larger group used to represent the entire group.
Population
The larger group being studied.
Random Sample
A sample taken that gives all members of the population the same chance of being selected.
Graph
A visual display that shows data in different ways. Graphs can show a large amount of information in a visual representation.
Pictograph
A graph in which pictures are used to represent data.
Bar Graph (Histogram)
A graph that uses bars (either vertical or horizontal) to display information and show a comparison of data. Shows how many times an event occurred. Bar Graphs display countable data well.
Line Graph (Broken-Line Graph)
A graph that uses line segments to show change in data (trends). Lind Graphs display changes over time well.
Important Components for Bar or Line Graphs
Title; equal width scale for the axes (consistent spacing); consistent width bars (or lines); labels for both axes; evidence of use of a ruler; a key if more than one series of data; different colors or patters for multiple series of data, correct data
Key or Legend
Label used in graphing to indicate the line or bar that corresponds to each particular series of data. Keys are needed when there is more than one data series.
Data Value Labels
Labels showing the numerical value for the data point or bar.
Title
Heading for a graph, to indicate what the graph is about.
Scale
The range in values on an axis, shoudl have a unit of measure
Intervals
Spaces between dashes (or tick marks) on an axis, must be the same width or size. The range in the data should be used to help determine the size and number of intervals.
Axes
(plural form of axis) - Horizontal and vertical scales, usually at least one axis is a number line.
Axis Label
Title for the axis, used to indicate how the scale is measured.
Broken Scale (Scale leaps, Jumps or Squiggle)
Occasionally a scale may be broken. This feature is sometimes used to save space; it can be misleading to the viewer. Symbols used: ≈,