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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to the commentary for Lesson 1, one of the best examples of a concurrent power within the American federal system is _____.
personal taxation
_____________ the Constitution states the basic reason why the federal government conducts a decennial (every 10 years) census of the population.
original part
If impeachment proceedings are initiated against the president or a federal judge, _____ the Constitution establishes who brings charges against this individual and who tries the case.
original part
Oklahoma became a state in 1907. By consulting _____________ the Constitution, you can determine whether all of Oklahoma’s U.S. senators have been popularly elected (elected by the people).
an amendment to
The location of the Electoral College is found in _____________ the Constitution.
an amendment to
Political parties are mentioned ____ the Constitution.
neither original nor the amendments to
Political authority conferred by law, public, opinion, or constitution is called _____.
legitimacy
Comment: Note how the answer to this question relates to the rightful use of (authority to use) political power in the United States. Compare with “formal authority.” This distinction lies at the heart of what gives this nation a successful and enduring political and governmental system.
p
Proponents of direct democracy defend it as the only way to _____.
ensure that the citizenry’s will prevails in public policy-making
The key to successful representative democracy is _____.
truly competitive leadership opportunities
The American colonists fought the Revolutionary War to protect what they generally agreed were their “natural rights” to life, liberty, and _____.
property
Between 1781 and 1789, the Articles of Confederation were, in essence, the constitution of the United States. Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government could enact _____________ by a 9/13s majority.
only legislative measures
Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government was authorized to _____.
handle mail and make peace
At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Framers produced a document that _____.
establish a then-unique true national government
The New Jersey Plan proposed a_____.
national legislature with each state having equal representation
The Virginia Plan proposed a _______.
national legislature with at least one popularly elected chamber
The discussion of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans suggests that once the 1787 Constitutional Convention got under way, the most serious disagreement among the delegates concerned the _____.
basis for representation in the law-making body
The Great Compromise allocated representation in Congress on the basis of the concept(s) of _____.
population proportionality in the House and state equality in the Senate
The key consequence of the Constitutional Convention’s adoption of the Connecticut Compromise was that this give-and-take agreement provided the basis for the eventual acceptance of the notion of a strong central (or national) government by _____.
both the large-population and the small-population states
Discussing the extent to which the Framers created a democratic government, American Government points out that the Constitution originally provided for direct popular voting _____.
Why and how would a 1913 amendment require you to modify your answer to question 19? Answer from pg 28
for representatives
inter
between or among
intra
within
How would you describe the split of powers in Congress itself and the national government?
e
Why "the constitution creates a system of separate institutions that share powers."
e
The two key tenets of American representative democracy are federalism and the separatoin of powers. Referring to these two principles in order given in the preceding sentence, you may correctly say that they provide for _____
intergovernmental and intragovernmental division of power, respectively.
James Madison (often called the “Father of the Constitution”) and other like-minded Framers believed that separation of powers and federalism would _____.
promote unity and personal liberty through appropriate constitutional controls on the pursuit of self-interest
American Government suggests that the most important reason the Framers included no bill of rights in the original Constitution was that _____.
the Framers thought they were creating a national government that could do only what it was constitutionally empowered to do
The Framers subsequently agreed to add a bill of rights to the original Constitution primarily because _____.
the requisite number of states would not ratify the original document without the promise of a bill of rights
When first ratified, the entire Bill of Rights limited the powers over citizens of _____.
the national government but not the state governments
The original Constitution failed to outlaw slavery because the Framers _____.
needed Southern support to gain adoption of the document
All but one of the first 27 amendments to the original Constitution were proposed by _____________ and approved by _____________.
Congress/ state legislatures
From the founding of the Republic in 1787, American federal-state relations have been consistently characterized by _____.
persistent political conflict
Many Western European democracies are unitary governmental systems that
can change or even eliminate local governments if or when they so desire.
The independence of the American states depends in large part on their having _____.
locally elected officials in the nation's capital.
According to American Government, the most obvious effect of American federalism has been to _____.
encourage widespread organized political participation.
The Framers of the Constitution viewed federalism and the separation of powers as devices to _____.
discourage governmental encroachments upon the citizenry's personal liberites.
The original Constitution included no explicit list of state powers because the Framers believed that the _____.
national government would exercise only delegated powers
The Framers wrote the “necessary-and-proper” clause into the Constitution to _____.
allow for changing circumstances
In 1819, the McCulloch v. Maryland Supreme Court decision established the basis for all of the following doctrines except _____.
states' nullification rights
Read the “Terms of Local Governance” box on page 57. Now answer this “think about it” question: If a city ordinance is a city law, a city charter (of any kind) is the functional equivalent of a _____.
municipal constitution
Thanks to judicial interpretations of the commerce clause of the Constitution, Congress can currently regulate _____ economic activity between and within states.
most
Read the material on state and local government on pages 57 and 59, and then complete this statement: American Government indicates that _____.
many states may constitutionally enact legislation through either representative or direct democracy procedures.
State officials like federal grants in large part because
they seem like free money that comes in few political liabilities.
Starting in the 1960s, the federal government began _____.
allocating grants more according to federal than to state/ local priorities.
An example of an intergovernmental lobby would be a lobby comprising _____.
local public-school board members.
From 1972 until the mid-1980s, the federal aid program that gave states and localities the most flexibility in and the fewest restrictions on use(s) was the _____________ program.
General-revenue sharing (GRS)
American Government indicates that block grants and GRS failed to provide state and local governments with the desired amount of fiscal relief and “no strings” partly because _____.
conditions of aid attached to block-grants and GRS grew steadily as these two programs expanded
Compared with block grants and general revenue-sharing grants, categorical grants have had more widespread political support partly because ____.
many state/local agencies would become defunct without categorical grants.
“The Rivalry among the States” passage points out the importance of the _____ in many federal grants-in-aid programs.
decennial census
One thing about mandates is that ________.
some must be obeyed whether tied to grants or not
The best known (and many of the relatively more controversial) federal mandates have resulted from _____.
judicial decisions
Beginning in the 1960s, _____ began to orient many members of Congress—who represent state and local interests—to pass laws that create problems for subnational governments.
weakend political parties.
Political conflict can occur over specific policies even among individuals with common beliefs (or values) partly because _____.
individuals’ respective interpretations of commonly held beliefs may differ so much that conflict almost always results
Stereotypical thinking about various nations' populations usually...
leads to correct conclusions about these nations' respective political cultures.
A traditional concern for individual rights has given American politics a _____.
spirit of adversial relationships
Today, the general elections of 1800 seem politically significant mainly because ______.
the “outs” peaceably replaced the “ins” holding governmental power
American religous diversity has ________.
promoted the development of political organizational skills
The term political socialization is often used to describe the processes through which the individual is inducted into a political culture and acquires political values, attitudes, and opinions. American Government suggests that the most important political socialization agent is/are the _____.
individual's family
The absence of a high degree of class consciousness among Americans can be partly attributed to the nation’s _____.
philosophic individualism
compared with other political disputes, the orthodox-progressive culture war features more deeply held beliefs and less likelihood of
compromises
American Government indicates that “a political culture that allows the discussion of ideas and the selection of rulers in an atmosphere reasonably free of oppression” _____.
constitutes the minimal requirement for a democracy
Compared with the public at large, public opinion research suggests, and some scholars argue, that the level of political tolerance among public officeholders and political activists is _____.
somewhat greater
majority public opinion alone fails to guarantee the....
constitutional protection of unpopular groups’ political liberties and rights.
The ability of 1 person to get another person to act in accordance with the 1st person's intentions.
power
the right to use power
authority
political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution
legitimacy
a political system in which the people are said to rule directly or indirectly
democracy
a political system in which all or most citizens participate directly by either holding office or making policy. (Ex. town meeting in which people vote on major issues)
direct or participatory democracy
A political system in which leaders or representatives acquire political power by means of competitive struggle for the people's vote. the form that is actually used by countries governed by a democratic government.
representative democracy
identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource like political power
elite
people who believe that those who control the economic system also control the political one.
Marxists
the appointed officials who operate government agencies from day to day.
bureaucrats
A theory that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
pluralist
Based on nature and providence rather than on the preference of people.
unalienable
A constitution drafted by the newly independent states in 1777 and ratified in 1781. It created a weak national government that couldn't levy taxes or regulate commerce. In 1789, it was replaced by our current Constitution in order to create a stronger national government.
Articles of Confederation
A meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the articles of the confederation, which produced a totally new constitution which is still in use today.
Constitutional Convention
A rebellion in 1787 led by Donald Shays and other ex-Revolutionary War soldiers and officers to prevent foreclosure of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. The revolt highlighted the weaknesses of the Confederation and bolstered support for a stronger national government.
Shay's Rebellion
A compromise at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 that reconciled the interests of small and large states by allowing the smaller to predominate in the senate (2 per state) and the larger in the House (according to population).
Great Compromise
A form of democracy in which power is vested in representatives selected by means of popular competitive elections.
republic
The power of the courts to declare acts of legislature and of the executive to be unconstitutional and hence null and void.
Judicial Review
The power of the legislature, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts of the other 2 branches.
Checks and Balances
A political system in which ultimate authority is shared between a central government and state or regional governments.
Federalism
A principle of american government whereby constitutional authority is shared by 3 separate branches of government- legislative, executive, and judicial.
Separation of Powers
According to James Madison, a group of people who seek to influence the public policy in ways contrary to the public good.
Faction
Supporters of a strong central government who advocated ratifications of the constitution. After ratification, they founded a political party supporting a strong executive and Alexander Hamilton's economic policies.
Federalists
Opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against ratification of the constitution in favor of a confederation of largely independent states. Successively marshalled public support for a federal bill of rights. After ratification, they formed a political party to support states' rights.
Antifederalists
A series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (all using the name Publius) that were published in NY newspapers in 1787-1788 to convince New Yorkers to adopt the newly proposed constitution. They are classics of American constitutional and political thought.
Federalist papers
An alliance among different interest groups (factions) or parties to acheive some political goal. Ex. coalition of Republicans and conservative democrats
Coalition
"You shall have the body" in latin. A court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge and show sufficient cause for his or her detention. designed to prevent illegal arrest and imprisonment.
writ of habeus corpus
A law that declares a person without a trial, to be guilty of a crime. The state legislature and congress are forbidden to pass such acts by Article I of the Constitution.
bill of attainder
"after the fact", A law that makes criminal an act that was legal when it was committed, that increases the penalty for a crime after it has been committed, or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier; a retroactive criminal law. The state legislature and congress are forbidden to pass such laws by Article I of the Confederation.
ex post facto law
A list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
bill of rights
changes in, or additions to, the US Constitution. Proposed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of congress or by a convention called by congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures and ratified by approval of 3/4 of the states.
amendments
The power of an executive to veto some provisions in appropriations bill while approving others. The president doesn't have the right to do this.
line-item veto
The current effort to scale back the size and activities of the national government and to shift responsibility for a wide range of domestic programs from Washington to the states. In recent years these areas have included welfare, health care, and job training.
devolution
Grants of money from the federal government to states for programs in certain general areas rather than for specific kinds of programs.
block grants
Supreme or ultimate political authority; this type of government is legally and politically independent of any other goverment.
sovereignty
A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government so that subnational political units are dependent on its will.
unitary system
A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers that they expressly delegate to a central government. The US was one from 1776-1787 under the Articles of the Confederation.
confederation or confederal system
A system in which soveriegnty is shared so that on some atters the national government is supreme and on others the state, regional, or provincial governments are supreme.
federal system
A political system in which local units of government have a specially protected existence and can make final decisions over some governmental activities.
federal regime
The final paragraph of Article I, section 8 of the Constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers. aka "elastic" clause b/c of the flexibility that it provides to Congress.
"necessary and proper" clause
A theory 1st advanced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson that the states had the right to "nullify" a federal law that in states opinion, violated the constitution. revived by John C. Calhoun of SC in opposition of federal efforts to restrict slavery. Upon te victory by the N, declared that states cannot declare congress unconstitutional, confirmed by the supreme court.
nullification
A constitutional theory that the national government and the state governments each have defined areas of authority, especially over commerce.
dual federalism
A municipal corporation or municipality that has been chartered by a state to exercise certain defined powers and provide certain specific services.
city
A legal term for a city. It is chartered by the state to exercise certain powers and provide certain services.
municipal corporation or municipality
A charter that denies the power of a certain named city and lists what the city can and cannot do.
special-act charter
A charter that applies to a # of cities that fall within a certain classification, usually based on a city population.
general-act charter
A legal principle that holds that the term of city charters are to be interpreted narrowly. Under this rule (named after a lawyer who wrote a book on the subject in 1911) a municipal corporation can exercise only those powers expressly given it or those powers necessarily implied by, or essential to the accomplishment of, these stated powers.
Dillon's rule
A charter that allows the city government to do anything that is not prohibited by the charter or by the state law.
Home-rule charter
A law passed or enforced by a city government
ordinances
The largest territorial unit between a city and a town.
county
A local or regional government with responsibility for some single function such asadministering schools, handling sewage, or managing airports.
special-district governments or authorities
A special-district government responsible for administering public schools.
school districts
The power of a state to promote health, safety, and morals.
police power
A procedure allowing voters to submit a proposed law to a popular vote by obtaining a required number of signatures.
initiative
A practice of submitting a law to a popular vote at election time. The law may be proposed by a voter's initiative or by the legislature.
referendum
A procedure, in effect in over twenty states, whereby the voters can vote to remove an elected official from office.
recall
Federal funds provided to states and localities. Typically provided for airports, highways, education, and major welfare services.
grants-in-aid
Federal grants for specific purposes defined by federal law; to build an airport, for example or to makewelfare payments to low-income mothers. Such grants usually require that the state or locality put up money to "match" some part of the federal grants, though the amount of matching funds can be quite small.
categorical grants
A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose. Distribution was intended to send more money to poorer, heavily taxed states and less to richer, lightly taxed ones. program ended in 86
revenue sharing
Federal rules attached to the grants that states receive. States must agree to abide by these rules in order to receive the grants.
conditions of aid
Rules imposed by the federal government on the states as conditions for obtaining federal grants or requirements that the states pay the costs of certain nationally defined programs.
mandates
The flow of power and responsibility from states to local governments
second-order devolution
The use of nongovernmental organizations to implement public policy.
third-order devolution
A broadly shared way of thinking about political and economic life that reflects fundamental assumptions about how government should operate
political culture
Fundamental assumptions about how the political process should operate that distinguish citizens by region, religion, or other characteristics.
political subculture
A more or less consistent set of views as to the policies government ought to pursue.
political ideology
A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs.
civic duty
A belief that one can affect government policies.
civic competence
A belief in the importance of hardwork and personal acheivement.
work ethic
An awareness of belonging to a particular socioeconomic class whose interests are different from those of others. Usually used in reference to workers who view their interests as opposite those of managers and business owners.
class consciousness
People who believe that moral rules are derived from the commands of God or the laws of nature; these commands and laws are relatively clear, unchanging and independent of individual moral preferences. They are likely to believe that traditional morality is more important than individual liberty and should be enforced by government and communal norms.
orthodox
A person who believes that moral rules are derived in part from an individual's beliefs and the circumstances of modern life. Are likely to favor government tolerance and protection of individual choice.
progressive
A citizen's belief that he or she can understand and influence political affairs. 2 parts- internal efficacy and external efficacy.
political efficacy
confidence in a citizen's own abilities to understand and take part in political affairs
internal efficacy
a belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands.
external efficacy