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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
function of vitamins
co enzymes (folate, B12)
H, e donor/acceptor
metabolism & hematopoesis
examples of water sol vitamins
niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid
biotin, pyridoxine (B6) and ascorbic acid
folate, vitamin B12
primary function of water sol vits
co enzymes

utilize nuts if fed
synthesize glucose if fasting
presentation of water sol vit deficiency
shows up in rapid grow tiss
(RBC, intestines)
common characteristics of water sol vitamins
convert to active
absorbed in SI (jejunum)
(active & passive transport)
not stored
excess excreted in urine
active form of vit B 1

metabolic reactions requiring thiamine
TPP (w/pantothen, riboflav, niacin, ATP)

pyruvate dehydrogenase (for ACoA)
alpha KG dehydrogenase (for TCA & )
Transketolase (HMP)
thiamine deficiency
effects glucose metabolism
(PD & transketolase most suscept)

mod: confusion, ataxia
-wernicke korsakoff

(wet includes edema)
at risk for thiamine def
elderly, etoh, pregnant, polished rice, glucose intravenous infusion
vitamin B2


catalyze ox/red rxn
metab of carbs & lipids
source of riboflavin
milk & dairy
(meat,fish, green leafies)

heat stable but degraded by light & alkali
cracks on side of mouth
shiney tongue (glossitis)
riboflavin deficiency

1.7 mg/day RDA
assessment of thiamine function
transketolase (active in RBC)
assessment of riboflavin status
glutithione reductase

stimulation test-
meas activity
add cofactor
25% change indicate active
stimulation test
test riboflavin

glutithione reductase
niacin deficiency (suspect EtOH)

3 D's
diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
niacin deficiency
pellegra (suspect EtOH)

diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis
pellegra, niacin deficiency

EtOH abuse susceptible
"necklace lesion" &/or inflammation of mucus membranes indicate advanced disease
Niacin (essential or no?)
can be derived from tryptophan
(uses thiamine, B6 & riboflavin)

only vitamin w/amino acid precursor
problem with corn diet
not enough niacin
(need alkali to release niacin from corn)
location of niacin in cells
NAD+ in mito
for oxidative, catabolic rxns
(generates NADH)

NADPH in cyto
reductive, anabolic pathways
peroxidine (what B vitamin)

pyridoxal-PLP (active)
carry amino groups
-transamination, energy from aa's
(aspartate to OAA, ala to pyruvate, glutamine to alpha KG) substrate for TCA, rvsible
-heme synthesis (produce ALA)
-NT production (decarboxylatinos to NE, 5HT & His)
-glycogen phosphorylase (stabilizes glyc breakdown to G 1 P)
depression, irritibility, nervousness, peripheral neuropathy
pyridoxine deficit

RDA 1.5 -2 mg/day (100mg prot)

occurs b/c intake lower than needed for protein intake
petechiae, corkscrew hairs, loose teeth, bad breath
Vit C defic- Scurvey

RDA 60mg/day
fruits, veg, potato
not grain
location of vitamin C
more in tissue than in serum
function of vit C
collagen(wound heal & maint CT)
-hydroxylate lysine for crosslinking

-regen Fe2+ for proline hydroxylation

-keep Cu reduced for Epi/NE from dopamine
reaction of vit C
form rad & rad scavenger
(dehydroascorbate recycled by GSH, diketogulonic acid excreted via urine)
cross linked collagen in urine
indicates bone loss

(vit C)
function of biotin
carry carboxyl (lipid synth)

Prop CoA to methylmalonyl CoA (branched chain aa catab)
Pyr to OAA (pyr carboxylase- glneogen)
ACoA to Mal CoA (ACoA carboxylase-FA synth)
neuro, rash, alopecia
biotin deficiency
bacteria in gut produce 1/2 of required

b/c raw egg whites & Ab's