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25 Cards in this Set

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general structure of phospholipid bilayer
outer layer
-neutral (sphingomyelin & P choline)

inner layer
-acidic (P ethanolamine, P serine & P inosital)
bilayer changes in aging RBC
loses PL
leaves acidic residues
P serine flips to outside
(spleen recog & destroy)
sphingomyelin
approximates chol in membrane
associates w/choline in cytosol
FA's transit through membranes (2 mechanisms)
passive diffusion "flip"
FATP- protein med'd transfer
structure of phospholipid
polar head group (all have OH)
-choline, serine, ethanolamine, glycerol, myo-inositol
attached via Phosphodiester bond


rest of mol is hydrophobic
phosphatidylcholine
lecithin
neutral, ionic
surround lipoproteins
phosphatidylethanolamine
neutral, ionic
3 fewer C's than PC
phosphatidylserine
acidic b/c COO-
signaling for old RBC
phosphatidylinositol
polar head is neut
leaves neg bal (acidic) b/c not balance pdiester
derived from G 6 phosphate

associated with DM
phosphatidylglycerol
surfactant
neutral head, acidic mol
most acidic PL
cardiolipin (aka diphosphatidal glycerol)
2 PO3's, in bacteria
only in inner memb of mito
(mito=bact theory)
PL's that can have Ab's in lupus
Pserine
Diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin)
Plasmalogen
can generate PAF- most toxic subs in body
phosphoether (not PL but looks like it)

30% of membrane

plt aggn, HTN & ulcerogenic
sources of choline
eggs, meat, wheat germ, soy beans

synthesized in liver
function of choline
learning & memory
memb PL structures
fetal brain dvt (15:1 fetus:mom at placenta)
sm amt in breast milk suff for all baby needs
essential nutrient (don't synth enough)
liver not function w/o
stem cell division
neural tube defect (I of folate)
phospholipases
PLA1- snake venom

PLA2
-cleave at C2 (FA)
-destroy PAF
-generate eicosos
-make PAF from lysophospholipids

PLC
-cleaves at lipid domain
-gives DAG & PIP
-deficient in Neiman Pick

PLD
-cleaves at head
-gen's phosphatidic acid
Hyaline membrane dz
RDS (resp distress synd)

surfactant
-dipalmitoyl lecithin
-mostly PC and some PG

-and SP A & B
tethering
increases protein hydro philicity

maristic acid
geranyl & farnasyl
HLA- parasite use PI
phospholipase cleaves at lipid domain
PLC
generates DAG & PIP
problem is neimann pick
phospholipase that cleaves at polar head
PLD
phospholipase that generates lysophospholipids
PLA2

gives FA for eicosanoids & lysophospholipids for PAF
general metabolism of phospholipids
construct lipid
-glycerol kinase (ATP)
-acyl transferase (get phosphotidic acid)
-phosphatase (get DAT for PL or TAG)

Construct polar head
-trap choline via kinase
-CDP choline is high energy donor

Combine
-PC diacyltransferase (kicks off CMP)
salvage pathway for PC
diacyltransferase

DAG to CDP Choline to Phosphatidyl choline
denovo synthesis of PC
methionine & SAM

ethanolamine + ATP
add CTP (get CTP ethanolamine)
add Diglyceride (get PE)
add 3 SAM
Gives PC & s adenosyl homocysteine
TAG synthesis
need Glycerol 3 phosphate
-from kinase in liver
-from DHAP (& dehydrogenase) in all cells

make phosphatidic acid
to DAG
to TAG