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32 Cards in this Set

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3 stages cellular respiration
produce ACoA
oxidize ACoA
electron transfer
sources of ACoA
amino acids (fumarate from uric acid cycle)
FA oxidation (ACoA dehydrogenase)
glycolysis- PD
electron sources for ox phos
glycolysis- 2 (plus 1 CO2)
FA ox- 1
Prot deg- 1
TCA- 4 (plus 2 CO2's)
FA store energy because...
many reduced carbons
componants of PD complex
PD (w/TPP)
dihydrolipoyl transacetylase
(w/lipoic acid)
dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
(w/FAD)

CoFactors:
TPP (aka thiamine pyrophosphate)-site for activity
Lipoic acid (lipollysine)-sulfur sites
FAD- to (re)oxidize lipoic acid
CoAsh
NAD+ (reduced & sent to ETC)
characteristics of ACoA
high energy
thioester linkage
donor of acetate

central compound in metabolism
products of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase reaction
CO2, ACoA, 2 NADH
intermediates in PD reaction
acetyl dihydrolipoic acid
reduced lipoyllysine
oxidized lipoyllysine
regulation of PD reaction during starvation
kinase in muscle
-senses starvation
-shuts PD down (prevent glycolysis)
saves glucose for brain
regulation of PD reaction druing muscle work
Kinase in muscle
-inhibited by ADP (if pyruvate avail)
-keeps system on (b/c PO3 not removed)

Phosphatase in musc
-senses Ca & activate system
mitochondrial metabolism is ________ during exercize
stimulated
kinase inhibited (by ADP)
phosphatase activated (by Ca in mito)
products of TCA
CO2, reduced e carriers, PO3, GTP
reactions of TCA also used in...
gluconeogenesis (OAA)
nitrogen metabolism (citrate)
inputs to TCA
ACoA, 3NAD, FAD, GDP, Pi, H20
products of TCA
2CO2, 3 NADH, FADH, GTP, 2 H+, CoA
substrates in TCA
Citrate
cis-Aconitate
alpha ketoglutarate
succinyl CoA
succinate
Fumarate
Malate
OAA
C(c)IA
SS
FM (federal marshall)
O(fficers)
products of TCA (how many for each glucose molecule)
6 NADH
2 FADH
2 GTP

(from 2 ACoA's)
# ATP per NADH
3
# ATP per GTP
1
# ATP per FADH2
2
catabolic function of TCA
transfer electron pairs from ACoA to NAD & FAD
anabolic functions of TCA
Citrate- FA synth
alpha ketoglutarate (w/OAA)- aa synthesis
Succinyl CoA- heme synthesis
OAA- gluconeogenesis
sources for TCA intermediates
ACoA- from FA oxidation, ketone utilization, glucolysis (PDh)
alpha ketoglutarate- aa degredation
ketogenic aa's- lyseine & leucine
energy producing steps of TCA
isocitrate Dh- NADH
malate Dh- NADH
alpha KG Dh- NADH
Succ Dh- FADH2
succynylCoA synth- GTP
componants of ETC
Complex I- NADH electrons
CoQ- inner membrane
(receives e's from I & II--& direct from FADH2 FACoA & alpha glycerol P-shuttle)
Complex 2- outer membrane
(succinate to fumarate-e's from FAD)
Complex III (cyt B & C)
complex IV (cyt a)
propulsion of e's in ETC driven by
electrochemical gradient
F1/F0 ATPase as motor

protein complexes pump H+ into intramemb space
e's toward alkaline matrix

chemiosmosis
chemiosmosis
flow of e's in ETC
b/c proteins in complex pump H+ into intramembrane space
F1/F0 ATPase collapses gradient
purpose of shuttles in ETC
transfer e's from NADH & FADH2 into mito from cytosol
2 shuttles in ETC
Glycerol Phosphate
-reduces CoQ
-NADH in cytosol
-FAD/FADH2 in membrane
-alpha Glycerol P dehydrogenase
Malate/Aspartate
Malate/Aspartate shuttle
Cyto:
-OAA to Malate (M Dh & NADH)
-a KG returns from mito
-also drives aspartate to glut

Mito:
-malate to OAA (via M DH & NAD+)
-OAA to a KG drives gmate to aspartate
(glut-oxaloacetic transaminase)
-aspartate back to cyto
glycerol phosphate shuttle
alpha glycerol phosphate Dh
(NADH to NAD+)
Dihydroxyacetone P to alpha G P

drives FAD/FADH2 in membrane

reduces CoQ
F1 particles
site of ATP production in mito

embedded in inner mito memb (facing matrix)