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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
unique feature of ketone metabolism
synthesis is uncontrolled
-overflow pathway for ACoA
(from excessive FA ox)
examples of ketones
acetoacetate
beta hydroxybuterate
(spon from acetoacetate)
acetone
characteristics of beta hydroxybuterate
very high energy
(more than acetoacetate-24 ATP)
(27 ATP equivs)
predominates in blood
function of ketones
heart, muscle & brain (pituitary) use for energy
liver can't oxidize them
fuel (metabolite)
nitroprusside test

genesis is source of H+
cation depletion (problem)
(urinary ketone bodies, anionic)
mechanism to combat acidosis
glutaminase & glutamate Dh
in renal cortex
H+ excreted via urine
alpha ketoglutarate used for gluconeogenesis

ketogenesis inhibits urea cycle by using cytosolic glutamate for amonia removal
ketosis
never underutilized
(problems always from overproduction)

produced in liver, kidney (& brain)
liver can't oxidize
# ketones produced from beta oxidation
4
(should only be 1)
ketone body ratio
beta hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate
measurement of redox state of cell

(analogous to lactate/pyruvate ratio)
ketogenesis (enzymes)
ACoA (from beta ox, some PD)

beta keto thiolase (also in beta ox)
HMG CoA synthase
HMG CoA lyase
beta hydroxybutyrate DH

in liver mitochondria
ketogenesis (products)
ACoA to beta hydroxybutyrate

ACoA
acetoacetyl CoA
HMG CoA
Acetoacetate
beta hydroxybutyrate
fates of ACoA in metabolism
(from beta oxidation & pyruvate DH)

via ketothiolase

FA synth
Cholest synth
ketone synth
utilization of ketones (enzymes)
SCFA (no transporter needed)

convert (to acetoacetate) via beta HBDh
trap (w/CoA- get NADH)
-use acyl transferase or thiokinase
release ACoA (via ketothiolase)
ketone enzymes not found in liver
to trap acetoacetate w/CoA

acyl transferase
-transfer CoA to Acetate from SCoA

or

-thiokinases
utilization of ketones (products)
beta hydroxybutyrate
acetoacetate
acetoacetyl CoA
fasting/starvation & ketone bodiesq
liberate TAGs
FA to liver & musc (via albumin)
-give ACoA for KB in liver
-gives ACoA for TCA in musc

glycerol to liver
makes glucose for blood

KBs from liver to muscle