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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the types of theories of aging?
Sociological, Psychological, Biological (stochastic), Biological (nonstochastic), and Nursing theories
What are the six sociological theories of aging?
Activity theory, Disengagement theory, subculture, continuity, age stratification theory, person environment fit, and gerotranscendance
What are the five psychological theories of aging?
human needs, theory of individualism, stages of personality development theory, life course/life span development, and selective optimization with compensation
What are the four biological (stochastic) theories of aging?
Free radical theory, orgel/error theory, wear and tear theory, and connective tissue theory
What are the four biological (nonstochastic) theories of aging?
Programmed theory, gene/biological clock theory, neuroendocrine theory, and immunologic/autoimmune theory
What are the two nursing theories of aging?
functional consequences, and theory of thriving
What is the basic concept that ties the sociological theories of aging?
Changing roles, relationships, status, and generational cohort impact the older adult's ability to adapt.
What is the activity theory?
Sociological.
Remaining occupied and involved is necessary to a satisfying late life.
What is the disengagement theory?
Sociological.
Gradual withdrawal from society and relationships serves to maintain social equilibrium and promote internal reflection
What is the subculture theory?
Sociological.
The elderly prefer to segregate from society in an aging subculture sharing loss of status and societal negativity regarding the aged. Health and mobility are key determinents of social status.
What is the continuity theory?
Sociological.
Personality influences roles and life satisfaction and remains constant throughout life. Past coping patterns recur as older adults adjust to physical, financial, and social decline and contemplate death. Identifying with ones age group, finding a residence compatible with limitations, and learning new roles post retirement are major tasks.
What is the age stratification theory?
Sociological.
Society is stratified by age groups that are the basis for acquiring resources, roles, status, and deference from others. Age cohorts are influenced by their historical context and share similar experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and expectations of life course transitions.
What is the person environment fir theory?
Function is affected by ego strength, mobility, health, cognition, sensory perception, and the environment. Competency changes ones ability to adapt to environmental demands.
What is the gerotranscendence theory?
the elderly transform from a materialistic/rational perspective towards oneness with the universe. Successful transformation includes and outward focus, accepting impending death, substantive relationships, intergenerational connectedness and unity with the universe.
What is the idea that unites the psychological theories?
These theories explain aging in terms of mental processes, emotions, attitudes, motivation, and personality development that is characterized by life stage transitions
What is the human needs theory?
Psychological.
Five basic needs motivate human behavior in a lifelong process towards need fulfillment.
What is the theory of individualism?
Psychological.
personality consists of an ego and personal and collective unconciousness that views life from a personal or external perspective. Older adults search for life meaning and adapt to functiona and social losses.
What is the Stages of Personality Development Theory?
personality develops in 8 sequential stages with corresponding life tasks. The 8th phase, 'integrity vs. despair' is characterized by evaluating life accomplishments. Struggles include letting go, accepting care, detachment, and physical and mental decline.
What is the Life Course/Life Span Development theory?
Psychological.
Life stages are predictable and structured by roles, relationships, values, and goals. Persons adapt to changing roles and relationships. Age group norms and characteristics are an important part of the life course.
What is the Selective Optimization with Compensation theory?
Psychological.
Individuals cope with aging losses through activity/role selection, optimization, and compensation. Critical life points are morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Selective optimization with compensation facilitates successful aging.
What are the biological thoeries of aging (stochastic) based on?
These are based on random events that cause cellular damage that accumulates as an organism ages.
What is the free radical theory?
Biological (Stochastic)
Membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins are damaged by free radicals which causes cellular injury and aging.
What is the Orgel/Error theory?
Biological (Stochastic)
Errors in DNA and RNA synthesis occur with aging
What is the wear and tear theory?
Biological (Stochastic)
cells wear out and cannot function with aging
What is the connective tissue theory?
Biological (Stochastic)
Aging proteins impede metabolic processes and cause trouble with getting nutrients to cells and removing cellular waste products
What unifies the biological (nonstochastic) theories of aging?
These are based on genetically programmed events caused by cellular damage that accelerates aging of the organism.
What is the Programmed theory?
Biological (Nonstochastic)
Cells divide until they are no longer able to; this triggers apoptosis (cell death)
What is the Gene/Biologicla Clock Theory?
Biological (Nonstochastic)
Cells have a genetically programmed aging code
What is the Neuroendocrine Theory?
Biological (Nonstochastic)
Problems with the hypothalamus/pituitary/endocrine gland feedback systems cause disease, increased insulin growth factor increases aging
What is the immunologic/autoimmune theory?
Biologic (Nonstochastic)
Aging is due to faulty immunological function which is linked to general well being.
What is the functional consequences thoery?
Nursing
Environmental and biopsychosocial consequences impact functioning. Nursings role is to minimize age-associated disability in order to enhance safety and quality of living.
What is the Theory of Thriving?
Nursing
Failure to thrive results from a discord beween the individual and his or her environment or relationships. Nurses identify and modify factors that contribute to disharmony among these elements.