Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law of dominance
when there are 2 alleles present for a trait, one of them will completely mask the effects of the other
law of segregation
two alleles from one parent separate when gametes are formed. a parent at random passes on one allele for each trait to their offspring. (see diagram)
law of independent assortment
genes for diff. traits are inherited independently of each other, meaning genes for the same trait do not necessarily separate together. This results in an assortment.
crossover variety
-genes on same chromosome are inherited differently
-when homologous chromosomes trade pieces w. each other cuasing genes that used to be linked to be separated
a form of a gene, codes for a particular trait. T or t are alleles for the trait of height.
homozygous (dom. & rec.)
2 alleles of the same kind for a trait:
-Homozygote dominant=TT
-Homozygote recessive=tt
mixed alleles for a trait=Tt
it only takes on allele for it to show--it masks the recessive
must be the only allele type present in order to be seen
genotype (&ratio)
-what alleles are present; letters to represent the genes=TT or Tt or tt
-genotypic ratio=how many of each genotype=1TT:2Tt:1tt
phenotype (&ratio)
-what it "looks" like; words to desribe the trait=tall or short
-phenotypic ratio=how many of each phenotype=3 tall: 1 short
many genes causing one trait ex: skin color (see diagram)
one gene causing MANY traits ex: Marfan's syndrome (see diagram)
multifactorial (PKU, rabbit)
-effected by more than the genes-like diet or environment can change effects
-ex: rabbit changes color b/c of temperature--it's not seasonal or built in
-certain diseases (PKU) can be contained by putting them on certain diets and thus controlling their environment
mating a known recessive with an unknown dominant
genes that are linked on teh same chromosome and are therefore inherited together (bond hair + blue eyes)
genes that are linked on teh same chromosome and are therefore inherited together (bond hair + blue eyes)
mapping (units)
figuring out the general placement of the genes and how far about they are (units are map units)
human genome project
mapping out the exact order of every base (ATGC) on every chromosome. Completed April 2003
restriction enzymes (insulin)
-act like molecular scissors and cut DNA at specific recognition sites--used to identify DNA like in fingerprinting.
-could make a DNA code for insulin that doesn't already exist
electrophoresis (uses + process)
-a process used to separate DNA fragments by size, used in DNA fingerprinting; identifying proteins; identifying organisms or diseases
-gel poured into container w/ blocking plastic. when plastic removed, little holes left + DNA poured in (restriction enzymes cut DNA). shorter DNA swim faster through gel and that way can compare DNA by comparing how far DNA travel.
recombinant DNA/genetic engineering
changing the DNA by combining DNA from diff. sources
-making exact copies of an entire organism (like Dolly) or using something like E. coli to make copies of a particular gene like for insulin
-chromosomes fail to separate during Anaphase I or II-gametes end up w/ wrong number of chromosomes
-Klinefelter's syndrome (nondisjunction)
=XXY-male, sterile, mental problems
-Jacob's syndrome (nondisjunction)
=XYY, male, can have Klinefelter's children
-Turner's syndrome= (nondisjunction)
X__, female, webbed neck, sterile, mental problems
-Superfemale (nondisjunction)
=XXX-mental problems
Downs Syndrome (nondisjunction)
trisomy 21, mental problems, several physical issues
Huntington's disease
-dominant disease, shows up as adult
-effects motor function/speech, loss physical functions, wheelchair bound
-prevalent in Amish pop. b/c isolate themselves and marry w/i themselves
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
-recessive, can't make the enzyme to break down phenylalanine (amino acid)
-mental retardation prevented if tested at birth + put on diet
cystic fibrosis
-recessive, most in Caucastions of Euro. descent (mutation that allowed ancesotrs to survive Black Plague b/c mucus clogged lungs)
-recessive, mostly in Ashkenazic Jews + Dutch (b/c tend to want to marry w/i religion)
-lipid buildup in brain, death by 5 yrs.