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34 Cards in this Set

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Nucleus
The control center of the cell. It contains all genetic material.
Chromatin
Long strands of intertwined DNA found in the nucleus when the cell is resting(not dividing). When the cell divides the chromatin strands shorten, thicken and become the chromatids which become chromosomes.
Chromatid
Each strand of chromosome during cell division, it is formed when the chromatin thickens.
Chromosome
Dark-staining, rod shaped bodies containing the DNA. Chromosomes are only found in the nucleus of the cell.
Centromere
The point of attachment of the two strands of a double-stranded chromosome.
Centriole
A small, granular structure in the cytoplasm, which divides during cell division. The daughter centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell, sending out spindle fibers that pull the chromatids apart at the centromere.
Spindle Fibers
The strands that originate from the centioles and attach to the centromeres, they pull the chromosomes apart into separate chromatids.
Cytokinesis
The physical splitting of a cell into 2 halves.
Diploid
The full number of chromosomes(46 in humans)
Haploid
Half the complement of chromosomes (23 in humans). Gametes are haploid cells.
Somatic cells
All the cells in the body except those involved with primary reproduction.
Sex cells
The reproductive cells (egg and sperm) that produce gametes
Prophase
The cell prepares for division. The chromatin twist into chromatids and chromosomes are formed. The nuclear membrane is dissolved and the centrioles have migrated to opposite poles of the mother cell.
Metaphase
The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. The spindle fibers extend from the centioles and attach at the centromeres.
Anaphase
The spindle fibers pull the chromosomes apart, leading the identical sets of chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. Each of the chromatids will now be considered independent chromosomes for each for each of the new daughter cells.
Telophase
Cytokinesis (the division of cytoplasm)occurs. The mother cell begins to split, the nuclear membranes reform and the chromatids begin to elongate into chromatin. The cell splits into two identical daughter cells (each cell is a diploid). Once this phase is complete, the new cells enter Interphase and replicate DNA in preparation for the next cell division.
Homologous
Two chromosomes carrying similar, but not identical, genetic information
Synapsis
The pairing of homologous chromosomes to each other.
Tetrad
The unit formed by the synapse of homologous chromosomes.
Crossing over
The recombination of chromosomal material by the breaking off and reforming of the arms of homologous chromosomes.
Reduction Division
The first meiotic division, which reduces the number of chromosomes in the original cell by splitting the tetrads.
Equatorial division
The second division, which splits the tetrads into chromatids, creating the haploid number for all four resulting cells.
Polar Body
A leftover cell in Oogenesis resulting from uneven cell division (cytokinesis).
Nondisjunction
A mistake in meiosis when the tetrads are not separated, resultin in an unequal number of chromosomes in the cells.
Mutation
A misreading of the DNA during replication. Mutations can be of only one base (point mutation) or can be of a large section left out, added on or jumbled. Mutation in mitosis is a somatic mutation and only affects the cells produced by an affected cell.
Point mutation
A change that occurs in a single base of a DNA sequence and may or may not change the amino acid sequence in the protein that is being produced.
Prophase I
The cell prepares for division. The chromatin twist into chromatids, the nuclear membrane begins to dissolve. Chromosomes are formed, the nuclear membrane is dissolved and the centrioles have migrated to opposite poles of the mother cell. The homologous chromosomes synapse to form tetrad bundles. Crossing over occurs at this time.
Metaphase I
The tetrads line up along the equator of the cell. The spindle fibers attach at the centromeres.
Anaphase I
Reduction phase. The spindle fibers pull the tetrads apart, leading the homologous chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase I
Cytokinesis (splitting of the cytoplasm) occurs. The nuclear membranes reform and the cell divides in two. Each cell is now haploid and carries different, but similar, genetic information.
Prophase II
The cell prepares for division. The centrioles divide and the nuclear membrane begins to dissolve. Centrioles migrate to opposite poles, the spindle formation begins and the nuclear membrane is dissolved.
Metaphase II
The chromosomes line up on the equators of both cells and the spindle fibers attach to centromeres.
Anaphase II
The chromosomes are split into chromatids and each is carried to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase II
Cytokinesis occurs. The nuclear membranes reform and both cells begin to split. The four cells produced are haploid.