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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
trait
any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
heredity
passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Genetics
study of heredity
alleles
two forms of a gene (dominant and recessive)
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
recessive allele
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait.
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait.
monohybrid cross
cross involving a single trait.
dihybrid cross
cross involving two traits.
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
Law of Dominance
when different alleles for a characteristic are inherited (heterozygous), the trait of only one (the dominant one) will be expressed. The recessive trait's phenotype only appears in true-breeding (homoozygous) individuals.
Law of Segregation
states that each genetic trait is produced by a pair of alleles which separate during reproduction.
Law of Independent Assortment
states that each factor (gene) is distributed (assorted) randomly and independently of one another in the formation of gametes.
fertilization
the process in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new organism.
codominance
a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
carrier
a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait.
chromosome
a doubled rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
clone
an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
gene
the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
gene therapy
the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.
genetic engineering
the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits.
genetic disorder
an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
genome
all of the DNA in one cell of an organism.
hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait.
inbreeding
a selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
karotype
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
meiosis
the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
messenger RNA
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.
multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait.
mutation
a change in a gene or chromosome.
pedigree
a chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
purebred
the offsprind of many generations that have the same traits.
replication
the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
selective breeding
the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
sex chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female.
sex-linked gene
a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome.
transfer RNA
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosomes and adds it to the growing protein chain.