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16 Cards in this Set

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An inherited characteristic
What is a Trait?
Ex. hair color, shape of nose, eye color, et.al.
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
What is Heredity?
The study of this field is called Genetics.
The study of heredity
What is Genetics?
This form of Biology explains how genes control inherited traits.
A factor that controls inherited traits
What is a Gene?
Combinations of these are predicted by a Punnett Square.
Describes a gene or trait that will always show itself
What is Dominant?
Traits that override other traits.
Describes a gene or trait that will be hidden when the dominant gene or trait is present
What is Recessive?
Hidden/masked traits which may emerge against all odds.
Having two like genes for the same trait
What is Homozygous?
Crossing two tall pea plants yields tall offspring
Having two unlike genes for the same trait
What is Heterozygous?
Crossbreeding homozygous tall plants (TT) with homozygous short plants (tt) yeilded tall offspring
The gene combination for a given trait in an organism
What is Genotype?
Gene pair = specific trait
The appearance of a trait in an organism
What is Phenotype?
Ex. A homozygous tall plant (Tt) and a heterozygous tall plant (Tt) have different genotypes but the phenotype is tall.
A chart that shows possible gene combinations
What is a Punnett Square?
A method of predicting the offspring of two organisms.
The large molecules in a cell
that store genetic information
What is DNA?
(deoxyribonucleic acid)
A DNA molecule resembles the Double Helix (twisted ladder)
A molecule in a cell used in the making of proteins
What is RNA?
(ribonucleic acid)
Differs from DNA in that the molecule has only one side of the "twisted ladder" shape/double helix
A chart that shows how a certain trait is passed from generation to generation.
What is a Pedigree?
Enables one to identify carriers of a trait and those family members having the disorder (ex. Hemophilia)
A change in a gene.
What is a Mutation?
Occurs when the order of the bases in a DNA molecule changes.
The methods used to change the genetic information in the DNA of cells or organisms
What is Genetic Engineering?
Ex. The Human Genome Project may help doctors and researchers find cures for diseases.