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56 Cards in this Set

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Scientific name for budding yeast
Caenorhabditis elegans
Scientific name for soil nematodes
Drosophila melanogaster
scientific name for drosophila flies
Arabadopsis thaliana
plamt that's a member of the mustard family
lineage diagram
diagram of cell lineages and their developmental fates
cell fate
pathway of differentiation that a cell normally goes through
autonomous cell fate
cellular differentiation determined intrinsically and not dependnent on external signals or interactions with other cells
positional information
developmental signals transmitted to a cell by virtue of its position in the embryo
loss of function
a mutation that emliminates gene function ; also called called a null mutation
gain of function
mutation in which a gene is overexpressed or inappropriately expressed.
maternal effect genes
a gene that influences early development through its expression in the mother and the presence of the gene product in the oocyte.
zygotic genes
any of a group of genes that control early development through their expression in the zygote.
segmentation genes
any of a group of genes that determines the spatial pattern of segments and parasegments in drosophila development
coordinate genes
any of a group of genes that establish the basic anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes of the early embryo.
gap genes
any of a group of genes that control the development of contiguous segments or parasegments in drosophila such that mutations result in gaps in the pattern of segmentation
pair rule genes
any of a group of genes active early in drosophila development that specifies the fates of alternating segments or parasegments. Mutations in pair rule genes result in loss of even numbered or odd numbered segments or parasegments
segment polarity genes
any of a group of genes that determines the spatial pattern of development within the segments of drosophila larvae.
imaginal disks
structures present in the body of insect larvae from which the adult structures develop during pupation.
homeotic genes
any of a group of gene4s in which a mutation results in the replacement of one body structure by another body structure.
MADS box transcription factor
a common sequence motif consisting of 58 amino acids. Involved frequently in transcriptional regulation in plants and to a lesser extent in animals.
Flower ABC model
a model of floral determination in which a unique combination of gene activities present in each whorl of the floral meristem results in the differentiation of a distinct organ in the mature flower.
Permissive conditions
an environmental condition in which the phenotype of conditional mutation is not expressed; contrasts with the nonpermissive or restrictive condition.
restrictive conditions
a growth condition in which the phenotype of a conditional mutation mutation is expressed.
temperature sensitive mutation
a conditional mutation that causes a phenotypic change only at certain temperatures
dynamic mutation
mutations in certain genetically unstable tandem repeats that increase or decrease in repeat numbers at a relatively high rate.
replication slippage
the process in which the number of copies of a small tandem repeat can increase or decrease during replication
transposon
a transosable element that contains bacterial genes
LTR retrotransposon
a type of transposable element that transposes via an RNA intermiediate that has long terminal repeats (ltr's) in direct orientation at its ends.
non-LTR retrotransposon
a type of transposable element that transposes via an RNA intermediate that lacks terminal repeats at its ends.
SINE
a type of transposable element lacking long terminal repeats that undergoes transposition via an RNA intermediate; the acronym SINE stands for short interpersed element.
LINE
a type of transposable element lacking long terminal repeats that undergoes transposition via an RNA intermediate; the acronym LINE stands for long interspersed element
CIB method
a genetic procedure used to detect x linked recessive lethal mutations in drosophila melanagaster; so named because one x chromosome in the female parents is marked with an inversion (c), a recessive lethal allele (l), and the dominant allele for Bar eyes (B)
DNA uracil glycosylase
an enzyjme that removes uracil bases when they occur in double stranded DNA
depurination
removal of purine bases from DNA
mutagen
an agent that is capable of increasing the rate of mutation
alkylating agent
an organic compound capable of transferring an alkyl group to other molecules.
intercalating agent
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ionizing radiation
removal, from duplex DNA, of a single stranded region in which a nucleotide pair does not form proper hydrogen bonds, followed by replacement with a region of newly synthesized DNA using the intact strand as a template.
mismatch repair
removal, from duplex DNA, of a single stranded region in which a nucleotide pair does not form proper hydrogen bonds, followed by replacement with a region newly synthesized DNA using the intact strand as a template.
aprymidinic site
?????
apurinic site
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AP endonuclease
an endonuclease that cleaves a DNA strand at any site at which the deoxyribose lacks base
excision repair
type of DNA repair in which segments of a DNA strand that are chemically damaged are remooved enzymatically and then resynthesized, using the other strand as a template
replication repair
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ames test
a bacterial test for muagenicity; also used to screen for potential carcinogens
Cell division cycle mutant
a mutant whose phenotype is to arrest the cell cylce at a specific and reproducible point
cyclin
one of a group of proteins that participates in controlling the cell cycle. Different types of cyclins interact with the p34 kinase subunit and regulate the G1/S and G2/M transitions. The proteins are called cycclins because their abundance rises and falls rhythmically in the cell cycle.
cyclin-dependent protein kinase
any number of proteins that are activated by combining with a cyclin and that regulate the cell cycle by phophorylation of other proteins.
cyclin-CDK complex
protein complex formed by the interaction between a cyclin and a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)
Phosphatase
enzymes that dephosphorylate proteins that the cyclin dependent kinases have phosphorylated, reversing the effects of CDK's.
Retinoblastoma protein
any of a family of proteins found in animal cells that functions to hold cells at the G1/S restriction point ("start") by binding to and sequestering a transcription factor that intiates the cell cycle
anaphase-promoting complex
a ubiquitinprotein ligase that targets proteins whose destruction enables a cell to transition from metaphase into anaphase.
dna damage checkpoint
a mechanism that arrests the cell cycle while damaged DNA remains unrepaired.
p53 transcription factor
a key protein that helps regulate a mammalian cell's response to stress, especially to DNA damage.
apoptosis
genetically programmed cell death
programmed cell death
cell death that happens as part of the normal cellular response to damage or as part of the normal developmental process. (aka apoptosis)