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26 Cards in this Set

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genetics
the study of heredity (how traits are passed)
Mendel
Father of modern genetics
Austrian Monk
pea plants for 8 years
made hybrids
trait
any characteristic passed from parents to offspring; early thought: traits from both parent blended
hybrid
organism that receives different genetic information from each parent
Mendel's used pea plants b/c...
self pollinate in nature
can be easily pollinated by hand
Mendel studied ___ (#) traits; which occured in only ___ (#) forms
Mendel studied 7 traits (including seed shape, coat color, pod shape and color, flower position and plant height) which occured in only 2 forms
pure-bred
when able to self pollinate always have the parent trait
P -
F1 -
F2 -
P- parents (pure-bred tal X pure-bred short(
F1 - 1st generation (all tall)
F2 - 2nd generation (3 tall, 1 short)
all 7 traits behaved as the height... ___ : ____ in ratio
all 7 traits behaved as the height... 3:1 in ratio
many factors have ___ or _____ forms
many factors have 2 or MORE forms
each plant has 2 factors from each trait.. ____ from each parent; now called
each plant has 2 factors from each trait.. ONE from each parent; now called ALLELES
allele
different forms of a gene for the same trait
factors separate as _______________ form, so they each contain one form of gene
factors separate as GAMETES form, so they each contain one form of gene
True or False: Factors do no blend
True
The Law of Segregation
each pair of alleles segregate during miosis; 1/2 of an organisms gametes have one allele from each pair and 1/2 have the other
The Law of Dominance
if two alleles of hybrid are different, one allele can control the trait while the other is hidden
The Law of Independent Assortment
gene pairs segregate into gametes randomly and independently of each other
dominant : capital or lower case letter
capital
recessive: capital or lower case letter
lower case
genotype
actual genetic make-up of organism (TT, Tt, tt)
phenotype
form of the trait observed in the organism (tall or short)
homozygous
when two alleles for trait are identical (TT or tt)
heterozygous
when two alleles for the trait are different (Tt... T over powers t)
Punnett Square
grid used to predict the probability of outcomes of a genetic cross
Monohybrid Crosses
shows only one trait in punnett square
Dihybrid Crosses
shows 2 traits at the same time in punnett square