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81 Cards in this Set

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Family of orientation
the family into which a person is born.
Family of procreation
The family into which one enters as an adult and within which a new generation of children is brought up.
Matrilocal
When a couple (or the family of procreation) lives near the bride's parents this is referred to as a matrilocal arrnangement.
Patrilocal
When a couple (or the family of procreation) lives near the groom's parents this is referred to as a patrilocal arrangement.
Monogam
Marrigae of one woman and one man.
Serial Monogamy
May have several spouses, but only one at one time.
Polygamy
Having several husbands or wives simultaneously.
polygyny
marriage of one man to more than one woman.
polyandry
marriage of one woman to more than one woman.
polygynandry
a group of marriage of two or more wives to two or more husbands.
Bilateral Descent
Both sides of the family are looked upon as equally important.
Paatrilineal descent
Only the father's relatives are significant in relation to property, inheritance, and emotional aspects.
matrilineal descent
Only the mother's relatives significant in relation to property, inheritance, and emotional aspects.
Patriarchy
A society that expects males to dominate in all family decision-making.
matriarchy
Women have greater authority and control.
egalitarian
Spouses regarded as equals
Endogamy
Specifies groups within which a spouse must be found and prohibits marriage with others.
exogamy
Requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually ones own family or kin.
incest taboo
Prohibits sexual relations between certain culturally specific relatives.
Homogamy
The conscious or unconscious tendency to select a mate with personal characteristics similiar to one's own.
Patriarchal terroism
Violence that is perpetuated by feelings of power and control.
Common couple violence
Reactionary to a specific incident and is not rooted in power or control
Social Class
More common in low-income couples
Uncoupling
at least one person develops a new life pattern becoming interested in other pursuits and making friends in which the other is not included.
Divorce and Children
Almost all children experience an initial period of intense emotional upset after their parents separate. Most resume normal development without serious problems within two years. A minority of children experience some long term problems as a result that may persist into adulthood.
Positive correlation (divorce)
Parental Divorce(people whose parents divorce are more likely.
Corporal Punishment
Inflicting bodily harm/pain onto someone in order to correct a behavior or punish someone.
Positive reinforcement
Adding a positive stimuli which increases a behavior.
Negative reinforcement (escape/avoidance)
Removing a negative stimuli which increases a behavior. Escape-experience some degree of negative stimulus and behavior terminates it. Avoidance-Take away before it happens.
Positive punishment
Adding a negative stimuli which decreases a behavior.
Negative Punishment
Removing a positive stimuli which decreases a behavior.
Extinguishing behavior
Ridding of a behavior
Charles Murray(the bell curve)
Evidence that links to IQ to genetic inheritance is overwhelming and true!Some racial and ethnic groups have higher intelligence than others.
Critism of the bell curve
IQ is closely associated with level of education, and that IQ tests don't measure IQ as much as they measure how much you learn in school. IQ is only one factor in how well you learn in school. The factors are, IQ,education,gender, community conditions,marital status,current economic conditions.
What lead to the development of formalizing schooling?
Industrialization
What were the consequences of bussing?
Episodes of violence at gates of schools.White parents put their children in private schools.
Intertextuality
What is actually New? Is their really such thing as authentic voice in writing?
Functionalist perspective on education--
Education as both manifest (open;stated functions) and latent functions (hidden;not recognized functions)
Conflict perspective
Views education as an instrument for elite domination
Hidden Curriculum
The standards of behavior that are deemed appropriate by society and are taught subtly in schools.
Credentialism
The increase on the lowest levels of schooling needed to enter a field.
bestowal of status
Schools sort people into appropriate levels and courses of study that will prepare them for the labor force.
Tracking principle
The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria.
Correspondance principle
Schools promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and therefore perpetuate class divisions.
Treatment of women in education (Oberlin/Modern disrimination?)
in 1833, oberlin college was the first school to admit women.Oberlin prepared women to become wives and mothers ( they had to wash men's clothing, care for their rooms, and serve their meals).
Interactionist perspective
If we treat people in particular ways, they may fulfill our expectations and act in accord of the manner that we treat them.
Teacher-Expectancy effect
The impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievments.
Research of Teacher Expectancy
20% of children in san francisco elementary school selected as spurters were expected to perform well on tests. They scored higher on these tests.
Schools of bureaucracy
The growing number of students being served by school systems and greater degree of specilization have combined to bureaucratize schools
Division of Labor
Specialized experts teach particular age level and specific subjects. These are teachers whose sole responsibility would be work with children with learning disabilities.
Hierarchy of authority
Each employee of a school system is responsible to a higher authority. Teachers must report to principals and assistant principals and are supervised by department heads.
Written rules and regulations
Teachers and administrators must conform to numerous rules and regulations.
Impersonality
Class sizes have swelled so there really is not personal time that teachers can give to students.
Employment Based on techinical qualifications
Hiring based on professional competance and expertise.
Title IX mandates what?
Gender equality in education in federally funded schools.
Title IX gains for women since 1971?
When only few opportunities for women to play sports, only 300,000 girls participate in high school sports.
Sacred
Transcending events. People become apart of this world through prayer nad spirituality. Accepting what u cannot understand through faith. You cannot prove everything, religion requires faith.
Profane
Things in the everyday world. The ordinary and commonplace things. The same object can be sacred or profane depending on how it is viewed.
Manifest functions of religion
Defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine.
Latent function of religion
Could serve as a meeting ground for married couples
Dysfunctional function of religion
Religious ties contribute to conflict within or between nations.
The Weberian Thesis ( Max Weber)
He connects religion to social change. He argues that when someone seems drive to work and succeed, we often attribute the protestant work ethic to that person.
Protestant Ethic
Weber noted toat in european nations with both protestant and catholic citizens, an overwhelming number of business leaders, owners of capital, and skilled workers were protestant.
Conflict perspective/Karl marx
Religion impedes social change by encouraging opressed people to focus on otherworldly concerns rather than immediate issues such as poverty and exploitation. Religion is harmful to oppressed people
Stained glass-ceiling
The invisible barrier within religion that blocks qualified women from leadership positions.
Jinism
Founded 6 centuries before the birth of christ. Believes there is no god, each person is responsible for his/her own spiritual well being.
Religious Economy
Religions can be fruitfully understood as organizations in competition with each other for followers.
Civil Religion
A set of religious beliefs through which a society interprets its own history in light of some conception of ultimate reality.
History of Pledge of Allegiance
Seeks to infuse civic life with a religious belief derived from the judeo christian heritage. Under god was added by congress in 1954 during the height of the cold war fears about " godless communism".Seperation of church and state, the pledge displays how religious belief central to the U.S.
Disestablishment
A period during whick the political influence of established religions is successfully challenged.
New Malthusians
The worlds population is out of control.
Anti Malthusians
People are good for a country. We are not outstripping the world's food supply.
Vegetarianism
We could save alot of starving lives if we ate less meat.
Food pollution
The transmission of disease during food processing and the addition of chemicals to food to help process it, lengthen its shelf life, or enhance its appearance or taste.
Types of food contamination
Food coloring,Saccharin,synergism
Disestablishment
A period during whick the political influence of established religions is successfully challenged.
New Malthusians
The worlds population is out of control.
Anti Malthusians
People are good for a country. We are not outstripping the world's food supply.
Vegetarianism
We could save alot of starving lives if we ate less meat.
Food pollution
The transmission of disease during food processing and the addition of chemicals to food to help process it, lengthen its shelf life, or enhance its appearance or taste.
Types of food contamination
Food coloring,Saccharin,synergism