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70 Cards in this Set

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Byron Price
-executive news editor of the AP
-named director of Office of Censorship during WWII
-directed voluntary press censorship
-served as chief of AP WAshington bureau
-AP's first executive news editor in 1936
-named director of Office of Censorship during WWII and later Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations
Edward R. Murrow
-unknown CBS program arranger who had been named European news cheif was in London at WWII
-See it Now was sponsoered by Alcoa (Aluminum Company of America)
-hired Cronkite
-also did World News Rouundup
-documentaries "Hunger in America" and "The Selling of the Pentagon"
-3/12/1938, first multiple news pickup in history with Wiliam L. Shirier in London
-Murrow in 1940 told CBS listeners of Nazi air attacks gainst london "This is London" broadcast
-rode a plane in great 1943 air raid on Berlin and gave broadcast on it
-tied coverage together for CBS during Korean war
-See it Now
-debated with McCarthy over "Disloyalty and Dissent"
-conscience of responsible braodcast journalists and feeling for common people's rights (Quaker parents)
-first See It Now: Murrow showed the Golden GAte Bridge and San Francisco skyline and Brooklyn Bridge in New york and talked about Korean WAr with others
-later did HEar IT Now
-first full-hour show (first full-length combat report): "Christmas in Korea"
=Milo Radulovich case
-also did interview show Person to Person
-try educate public about difference between disloyatly and dissent
-CBS Reports and also did Harvest of Shame
-died from cancer in April 1965
-lived in loyalty oath atmosphere
Ernie Pyle
-wrote columns for United Features and had original cross-country tour columns about little people nad things were followed by superb personal glimpses of American fighting men in WWII until he was killed on a Pacific Island in 1945
-best-known reporter of WWII
-columnist-friend of the GI
-had attention before the war for personal notes on life in US when he wandered around the country
-1940, told his readers what the people of Britain felt as they resisted teh NAzi air blitx
-attached himself to US army and wrote in hometown style of intimate daily life of GI in Ireland, N. Africa, Sicily, Italy, and France
-column for Scripps Howard and Here is Your WAr and Brave Men won him national repuation and Pulitzer
-left Europe in 1944 but went to cover final stages of Pacific war
-Jap sniper killed him on Ie Shima during Okinawa campaign of April 1945
William L. Laurence
-joined NY Times in 1930 during when science and medicine were better covered
-rode in one of the planes that flew to Nagasaki to drop the second atomic bomb
-only reporter to witness the NM test and promised front-row seat for secrecy about knowledge on Manhattan Project
-Sept. 9th NY Times covered his exywitness description
-science expert who won Pulitzer in 1937 won another one for this article and 10 others later
Edgar Snow
-wrote Red Star over China (1938) which introduced Mao to outside world
-came to China in 1928 as protege of Thomas F. Millard (propagandist when he was in China)
-worked for the liberal China Weekly Review, freelanced, and lectured in journalism at Yenchine (Beijing) Uni
-1936, went to Shensi province hq of Mao and Chinese Communist army units who had survived a 6,000 mile Long March that ended their wartime stronghold of Yenan
-spent four months with Communists and was named cheif Far East correspondent for the London Daily Herald
-sold 75 pictures to Life, wrote for Sat. Evening Post, and published Re Star (interpreted Mao and his political philo)
-left in 1949 and came back in 1960 where for decade he was the only American correspondent
-1970, he was saluted alongside Mao at Tiananmen
-died before Nixon arrived in China
-lived in China in the 1960s
Marguerite Higgins
-one of the toughest and most outspoken stars of the Korean news brigade flew to Seoul on June 27 from Tokyo under fighter escort
-from NY Herald Tribuene
-got an exclusive interview with Gen. MacArthur on his first visit to the front
-was at the fall of Suwon airfield
-saw first US soldier kiled in action on July 5
-also went to sygon
-hawk who advocated use of atomic bomb if needed to repel Communists
-fell victim to Asiatic infectrion on 1965 trip and died in 1966
Homer Bigart
-honored with Pulitzer for WWII work
-worked for NY Herald Trib
-sent to relieve Higgins in Korea but she refused so they battled it out on the front pages
-Maj. en. CA Willoughby (MAcArthur's chief intelligence officer) attaced him as inaccurate, biased and petulant
-dean of Saigon press corps when at NY Times
-almost faced expulsion by the Vietnamese
David Douglas Duncan
-photographer who recorded the wars (Korean, Vietnam)took first of great Korean war photos for Life and seen in mag on July 10
-took photos of entry of Chinese Comunist army into Korean War and disastrous retreawt of UN's units
-won the 1967 Robert Capa Award during Vietnam
-had haunting b&w photos on Vietnam
Hans von Kaltenborn (student presentation)
-dean of teh commentator
-quit newspaper and joined CBS as full-time commentator in 1930
-foreign correspondent, managing editor, and associate editor of Brooklyn Eage first
-started broadcasting news for local station in 1922
-had internationalistic outloook
-WWII: memorable broadcast from haystack near French border with Spain where battle was raging
-translated Hitler's fiery oratory for American listeners and predicted the diplomatic steps that would follow various events
-heard 85 times during the 3 weeks
-1936 - Became CBS radio network analyst
Never read from a script
Became popular for WWII news analysis
International reputation – traveled frequently
Could speak intelligently on events because he frequently interviewed those involved
Covered the Munich crisis in 1938
-Joined NBC in 1940
Election night 1948: Mistakenly projected Dewey as presidential winner before all returns were in
1953: Left full-time broadcasting
1956: Covered party conventions for NBC
-Made several television appearances after retiring
His achievements were chronicles in his biography Fifty Fabulous Years and in other books and radio commentaries
Died in June 1965
Lowell Thomas
-With Lawrence in Arabia during WWI was claim to fame
-read news on CBS and made first broadcast 9-29-1930
-program was longest running in broadcast history (40 years)
-first show had Thomas' comments on Hitler
-"Good Evening, Everybody"
-later moved to NBC
-“So long until tomorrow.”
-Narrated 20th Century Fox’s Movietone reels until 1952
-1986: Presidential Medal of Freedom
-1989: Radio Hall of Fame
Fred W. Friendly (and Murrow)
-Murrow's coproducer of radio and TV documentaries for the next 10 years on See It Not and Hear It Now
-sed $1500 of own funds to by NY Times ad for SEe it Now on Radulovich
-felt boss sought ratings rather than public service
William S. Paley
-became NBC's first competition in 1927
-bought control of United in 1928 and s had CBS
-family had cigar company
-dominated CBS for 50 years and later came back in 1986
-try convince Literary Digest pulisher RJ Cuddihy to swith sponsorship to his network with Lowell Thomas
-decide to discontinue See It Now
Chet Huntley
-NBC news with David Brinkley
-deep-vied, rough-hewn Montanan
-The Huntley/Brinkley Report
-retired 1970 and died of cancer in 1974
-covered Kennedy's press onference highlights
-beat CBS for a while
David Brinkley
-NBC team with Chet Huntley
-dry, cynically whimsical reporter from NC
-Teh Huntley/Brinkley Report
-lasted until 1970
-more of the Washington viewpoint
-July 1967, crticized American involvment in Vietnam and said air war over N. Vietnam should be stopped
-in troik arrangement with John Chancellor and Frank McGee
-later did David Brinkley's Journal, nightly commnentary
-later joined ABC
-Kennedy press conference highlights
-once first in ratings
-criticized weakness of TV news system with Cronkite
-on ABC, did This Week with David Brinkley
United States Information Agency
-created in 1953 and was stable in 1945
-continue work of office of War Info during peacetime
-first operation was the Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs
-agencies for "tell it like it is journalism
-created in 1948 by Smith-Mundt Act with functions split into Office of International Info andOffice of Cultural Exchange
-had Voice of America (VOA)
-properly interpreted US involvement in news events and offiials who wished the agencies to reflect their imagre of how the world should respond to current US policy and who wished to minimize news of any conflict with such an image
-1977, Carter conbined USIA and State Dept's educational and cultural-affairs activitis in a new International Communication Agency nd operate same as before
-24 hour news service
William F. Buckley, Jr.
-founded the National Review, strongest and most intelligent voice of the far right in Ameircan political opinion in 1955
-brother James Buckley was Conservative party candidate to US Senate for NY in 1970
Dorothy Day
-founded Catholic Worker, liberal left opinion mag (religiously oriented publications) in 1933
-edited it until 1980
-editroial philosophy of personalist Christianity, active pacifism, and nonviolent social justice
-distinguished and consistent journalist
-Worker was a monthly paper that const a penny
-encouraged active conscience and had soup kitchens and residences for poor during the 1980s recession
-had a consistent ditorial line (personal activism (personalism) to achieve nonviolent social justice, a throughgoing devotion to pacifism, and philosophy of communitarian Christianity)
-was activist reporter for Socialist Call and Liberator and libed in Greenwich village, wrote for teh MAsses and pickete White House for women's suffrge
-converted to Catholicism in 1927
-started Worker with French Cath. sidewalk philosopher Peter Maurin
-against Sp Civil War and WWII
-ry reform Catholic Church
-opposed the draft, anti-Semitism, Jap internment, atomic bomb, peacetime draft, Lorean War, Rosenberg executions
-supported draft-card burning and was arrested for picketing with Cesar Chavez in California
John H. Johnson ( student presentation)
-started Ebony and published Negro Digest
-also published Jet, Tan Confessions, Ebony Jr.
-Ebony was like the format of Life
-also added EM
-Johnson Publishing Co.
-president of 3 radio stations and involved with other enterprises
-Essence also published
Alfred A. Knopf
-loved history
-fashioned a distinguished list of authors for his business
-The Prophet, by the mystical Lebanese poet Kahlil Gibran was a success
-attractedto international literature
-his firm was published by Random House in 1960 and later both were bought by RCA
House Un-American Activities Committee
-had series of investiagtions on film-making industry
-began in 1947 and subjected hundreds of suspect liberal writers and directors to cross-examinations, jailed 10 as unfriendly witnesses and condemned many others to an informal blacklisting ordered by frightened industry leaders jsuch as Jack Warner (Mission to Moscow)
“The Great Debates”
-four televised debates in Sept. and Oct. between Nixon and Kennedy
-more than 85 million Americans tuned into at least one of th debates
-first debate moderted by CBS correspondent Howard K. Sith was crucial moment of cmpaign
-Kennedy looked poised and fit and Nixon looked weary and gray
-Kennedy won b/c of favorable TV image
Walter Cronkite (student presentation)
-native of St. Joseph, Missouri
-leading CBS News personality of 1960s
-earned a reputation at CBS's WAshington station, WTOP-TV
-Cronkite went for the bulletin lead or exclusive interview
-star of many CBS documentary shows including Eyewitness to History, 20th Century, and CBS Reports and was on CBS radio show
-straight devliery of news and heavy note of seriousness so evening newscaster in 1962
-Labor Day, 1963: inaugurated first 30-minute network news show
-became regular convention anchor
-Cronkite was strong force behind Vietnam pull-out (1968)
-stressed need for news credibility and said cmeras spoke for themselves duringn 1968 Democratic National Convention
-got top spot in rationgs
-ability as space reporter
-moderator in 1977 for Carter's radio talk show
-Uncle Walter
-"Goodnight"
-later was special correspondent
-teamed with Murrow and were first in 1952
-teared up wen saw that Kennedy died
-showed Morley Safer's video of burning down the Vietnamese houses
-participatd in 2-hour phone-in from Oval Office for Carter
-criticsized the pretty faces on locl TV shows
-Dan Rather took his job
-said that there were so many the average citizen to hear different viewpoints that there was no reason to assume that the TV networks held as much power as in the days when broadcasting frequencies were limited
John Chancellor
-one of the most thoughtful and conscientious broadcaseters to address the public
-took NBC anchor spot in 1970 and was in troika arrangement with Brinkley and McGee until the two left
-guided NBC through Vietnam, Wtergate, Ford through Reagan and returned to coanchor in 1976
-left his anchor position with hopes that network news would expand to an hour format
Barbara Walters
-star of NBC's Today show
-joined ABC in 1976 with a 5-year contract for $5 million
-coanchoring evening news with Harry Reasoner
-Waler had been a writer and interviewer of leadeing personalities
-also hosted special interview shows
-Walter left anchor post to devote herself to interviews
-worked at 20-20
Roone Arledge
-brought ABC Sports into first place with Wide World of Sports, Monday Night Football, and spectacular Olympic coverage-- particularly 1972 games in Munich
-head of ABC News in 1977 as the :roving-anchor" concept
-president of ABC's news division
-moved it to first place
Marlene Saunders
-Vietnam correspondent who became vice president and director of documentaries
-one of the leaders in documentaries
-anchored the network evening news as sub during strike in 1964
-later anchored the weekend news for several months in 1971
-in 1977, she did ABC Closeups series
-major production was "Women's Health: A Question of Survival" in 1976
-strong advocate of young women broadcasters and gave time to that cause
Robert Capa
-had great image of falling Spanish Civil War soldier
-Hungarian born photographerwho was world renowned for his graphic pictures of teh Spanish Civil WAr and the Normandy invasion beaches
-first American journalist to die in Vietnam
-stepped on a land mine while photographing for Magnum in 1954, the year the French extricated themselves from the Indochina quagmire by surrending at Dienbienphu
-has an award named after him
Malcolm Browne
-went to Vietnam in 1/1961 for AP
-got Pulitzer for international reporter in 1964
-also took on activist role
-later went to ABC in 195 and joined NY Times
-also took part in Guld War
Neil Sheehan
-went to Saigon Press Corps for Unted Press International in April 1962
-reported on the failure of S. Viet. arms after viewing a military debacle at Ap Ba that proved that the US military advisers had a long way to go to infuse a winning spirit in their alliers
-with other Saigon press corps, attacked by others for integrity, etc.
-later joined NY Times
-was instrumental in Timnes' publishing of Pentagon Papers, taken from a secret analysis by Pentagon reserchers and validating the 1961 to 1965 credibility gp
David Halberstam
-joined Saigon Press Corps for NY Times to replac Bigart
-viewed military debacle at Ap Bac with Sheehan
-contributing editor of Harper's Magazine and then devoted hist time to books and articles
-wrote about why not report on essenceof why Vietnam War was being fought
-defended critical coverage
-wished that the press corps had been much ore critical during the war's opening days, from 1962-1964
-was part of lessons of Vietnam War
-got 1964 Pulitzer for international reporting
-
Morley Safer (442, 447)
-part of 60 Minutes
-shot "The Burning of the Village of Cam Ne" which nearly cost him his job
-defended the critical coverage of Vietnam War
I.F. Stone
-alternative journalist
-wrote The Hidden History of the Korean WAr (1952)
-offered evidence that MAcARthur had forced the Chinese in to combat by probing dangerously close to the Yalu River (buffer zone)
-suggested that American fears of a Communist Chinese presence in the UN ruined chances for an early armistice, despite Russian attempts to bring the fighting to a halt
-published IF Stone's Weekly and sickened sensationalizing in the Red issue of Time and basically all the loyalty stuff going around
-began his mag in 1953
-bit at proponents of McCarthyism
-continued newsletter until 1971
-wrote of controversies caused by Korean War, problems of blacks, early days of Vietnam, steady encroachment on private rights in the anti-Vietnam War demonstration days
-had documented exposes taken from printed recs of govn't fed other writers and activists with ammunition
-most distinguished and consistent journalist
-retired later to be contributing editor for NY Review of Books
-also later wrote in the Nation about the Black Monday stock mkt crash n 10/19/1987
Jann Wenner
-founded Rolling Stone when he was 21 in 1967
-moved hq from San Fran to Ny
-focus was music though tak tough stands during Vietnam War and political nd social commentary also involved
Gloria Steinem
-rallied and was at conventions for women's liberation movement
-edited Ms. and was founder
-star writer at New York
-The oldest paramount feminist magazine
-First women’s magazine to achieve national circulation
Jack Anderson
-syndicated columnist of investigative reporting
-Anderson v. Liberty Lobby (1986): Court ruled 6-3 tat a public-figure libel plaintiff mut demonstrate actual malice by clear and convincing evidnce to overcome a defendnt's motion that a summary judgment dismising the suit be granted by a tril judge
-the political action org had sued him
Tom Wolfe
-contributed to Rolling Stone
-experimented wth new nonfiction reportage (literary journalism)
-worked for Washington Post before joinging NY Herald Tribune
-The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby made people consider new journalism as a serious art form
-also described age of drugs in Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
John H. Sengstacke
-successor to Abbott at the Chicago Defender
-editor and publisher of the Chicago Daily Defender and head of Sengstacke Newspapers group
-elected to board of directors of the American Society of Mewspaper Editors in 1970 (first black editor)
-head of the Defender newspaper group
Prior restraint
-June 1971, US govn't tried to impose prior restraint on American newspapers
-15 days, successfully stopped a daily from publishing it
-1534, Henry VIII imposed prior restraint on Eng press
-ended in Eng in 1694 and in colonies in 1721
-prior restraint bears heavy presumption against its constitutional validity
-for purposes of nat'l security, it was imposed again in 1979 from Progressive mag from publishing article telling how hydrogen bombs are built though author had his info from public sources
Pentagon Papers case
-happened during 1971
-Nixon told Attorney Gen John Mitchell to go to court to seek the imposition of a prior restraint on publication
-NY Times got ahold of "History of US Decision-Making Process on Vietnam Policy" compiled for Pentagon at order of former Defense SEcretary Robert McNamara
-all docs were classified as top secret
-Times correspiondent Neil Sheehan was key figure in development of Pentagon Papers series for the paper
-Abe Rosenthal was managing editor at tht time
-June 13, NY Times printd first installment
-new district Judge Murray Gurfein issued temp restraining order but no permanent
-US Court of Appeals Judge Gerhard A. Gesell said govn't couldn't impose prior restraint on historical data
-proved that national security was not involved-- didn't go in for the 1st Amendment no prior restraint kill
-used NEar v. Minnesota (1931 case that defended liberty of the press and extnded the protection of the 1st amendment against acts of Congress to include a ban on state action
Watergate
-most widespread political corruption in nation's history
-misues power, money, and publi trust
-Nixon let FBI wiretaps on 4 newsmen and 13 govn't officials
-authorized WH surveillance team (Plumbers): plug leaks of classified info
-broke into office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist to find personal info that might discredit him (brought Pentagon Papers to NY Times)
-WH aide Charles Colson gave John Dean (prez's counsel) priority list of 20 political enemie
-try destroy Senator Edmund Muskie and hoepd George McGovern would be oppoenent for 1972
-WH chief of staff, HR Haldeman kept charf og "dirty tricks" campaign
-Plumbers entered WAtergate apartmetn complex and were cught (Dem Nat'l Committee hq)
-break0in was financed by CREEP
-Washington Post ran story
-Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
-Deep Throat contact
-maor breakthrough when find out Watergate was only part of WH plan for massive spying and political espionage
-Presz adie Alexander Butterfield told Senate committee taht Nixon had taped secretly all of his convos
-battle over the tapes: 18.5 minute gap between Nixon and Haldeman by manual erasure
-that was the smoking gun
-Nixon resigned
Bob Woodward (student presentation)
-exposed Watergate
-metro reporter who was on the case
-traced name of E. Howard Hunt
-source Deep Throat
-found that Watergate was only one small part
-questioned the origins and outcomes of the Gulf War by publishing best-selling book, The Commanders, where he described how the trong desire of Pres. Bush, Sec. Def. Cheney, and others for armed conflict essentially eliminated the chance for an Arab world soln to the crisis or a long-term applicaiton of econ sanctions by the UN coalition
-reported that one person adocated softer approach was Gen Colin Powell (chariman Jt Chiefs of Staff) but couldn't find allies within top circle of advisers
-Continues to write for The Post and was the lead reporter during 9/11.
Won the National Reporting Pulitzer in 2002 for his 9/11 work.
Plan of Attack, 2004
Interviewed 75 people from the Administration, including Bush himself.
Involved in the Plame scandal.
Received the Gerald Ford Prize for Distinguished Reporting on the presidency in 2003.
Carl Bernstein (student presentation)
exposed Watergate
-metro reporter who was on the case
-found that Watergate was only one small part
-He wrote Loyalties: A Son’s Memoir. He co-authored the book His Holiness: John Paul II & the History of Our Time with Marco Politi.
He was the Washington Bureau Chief for ABC from 1979 to 1981. From 1981-1984 he was the correspondent for ABC in New York.
He has also written for Time, Newsweek, The New Republic, Rolling Stone, The New York Times, Vanity Fair, and Der Spiegel.
“Deep Throat” (Mark Felt)
-Washington Post's mysterious source
-was 2nd in FBI
-denied it until 2005
Keyes Beech
-reported during Korean WAr that at hiegh of the retreat panice MacArthur had recommended withdrawal fro Korea
-wrote for Chicago Daily News
-also covered Vietnam
-oldest Asian vet who lamentd th loss of Viet to Communists and said that in general the coverage had been lopsided against US efforts to stabilize the area
-watched Hong Kong China in 1970s
Peter Arnett
-Vietnam correspondent for AP
-tireless reporting during Vietname got him Pulitzer and said that Westmoreland was in critial position
-vet at Vietnam in terms of experience
-defended the critical coverage at Vietnam
-covered Gulf WAr at CNN: waiting an interview with Saddam Hussein when Cruise misiles and sudrons of F-15E figher bombers took over
-reproted bomb damage and was criticized for it but also praised for courage and calm assesment of the situation
-occasionally contradicted Pentagon claims taht destruction of nonmilitary targets was only collateral or accidental damage
-skeptical of US's claims
-wrote in a Nov. 98 article in American Journalism Review that foreign news is disappearing from many American newspapers and suggested that a foreign story taht doesn't involve bombs, natural disasters or finanial calamity ahs little chance of entering the American consciousness
-also observed taht after Vietnam, public desire for more local and sevice-oriented features supplanted the already-dwindling international news slot
Larry Burrows
-worked at Life in Vietnam since 1962 and twice a Capa award winner
Dan Rather
-reported for CBS in TX that JFK was dead
-named WH correspondent for CBS
-produced documentary that ecided little if any evidence of a conspiracy
-slugged at 1968 DNC in Chicago by a security guard
-part of 60 Minutes
-engaged in combat with Nixon in press conferences
-got special recognition for live reporting during Tiananmen Square
-got an exclusive interview with Saddam ussein during Gulf War and reported from Middle East
-anchor of CBS and felt that a collective lack of courge was the cuase of the demise of broadcast news
-CBS Evening News anchor in 1981 with $8 mill/5-year contract
-sincerity, ready smile, pullover sweaters
-1988, aggresively chllenged George Bush about his Iran-Contra connections and was chided for leaving CBS achorchair for minutes
-Connie Chung later joined them
-continued with 48 Hours magazine show
Stephen Kinzer (guest lecture/discussion by Kinzer)
-most prominent of US journalists covering Nicaraguan rev and Contra war
-NY Times--> opened Managua Bureau as bureau chief
-remained only full-time US newspaper journalist permanently stationed in Managua
-also went to Honduras
-wrote Bitter Fruit: story of 1954 US coup in Guatemala
-criticized for concentrating too much on faults of the Sandinista govn't that had closed the oppoition newspaper and exiled several priests
Thomas Friedman
-Ny Times
-Pulitzer for international reporting award for stories of the fighting of Israel in Lebnon
-detaied his work in autobiogrphy From Beirut to Jerusalem
Bob Simon
-CBS journalist
-captured along with his crew and psent the war in an Iraqi prison (Gulf War)
Christiane Amanpour
-reported for CNN on Gulf War at Amman
-star foreign correspondent
-also worked at Nightline (CNN)
Bill Moyers
-PBS show High Crimes and Misdemeanors showed misdeeds of Reagan-Bush to Iran-Contra (showed the two had lied)
-former press secretary of LBJ who became alienated by Vietnam and accepted publisher’s chair at Newsday
-went to public TV
-involved with CBS Reports
-Bill Moyers’ Journal, long running series dealing with current events and human condition
-17-part Creativity series traced achievements of productive people
-back with CBS to give nightly news commentaries, planning documentaries, hosting Our Times
-later host of NBC’s Meet the Press in place of Chancellor
Tom Brokaw
-reported on Gulf War from Middle East
-former WH Correspondent
-started NBC Nightly News in 1983 as anchor
-also hosted Today Show
Peter Jennings
-anchor at ABC
-was in London when ABC (under Roone Arledge) had the roving anchor concept
-ABC special, A Line in the Sand, one of the best programs broadcast during the build-up period
-Canadian national with 15 years of foreign reporting experience
-anchor of ABC’s World News Tongith in 1983 after Frank Reynolds’ death
-had knowledge of world affairs
Ted Koppel
-reported from Middle East during Gulf War
-hosted Nightline
-english-born journalist who at 23 was youngest network correspondent in TV history
-covered Vietnam and State Dept. during Nixon and Ford years
-live interviews were main feature of his Nightline show
Ted Turner (student presentation)
-Turner Broadcasting Company
-creator of superstation WTBS in Atlanta, launched Cable News Network in 1980 after first using a satellite to offer cable stations sports and reruns of movies
-began satellite service in 1976 after HBO
-CNN had 24 hour service of news summaries, sports and bi, news specials, and lengthy interviews on various subjects throughout the day
-entrepreneur
-Turner Broadcasting System added Turner Network TV and Checkout Channel (supermarkets)
-very ambitious Georgian and didn’t gain control of CBS
-bought majority shares of MGM/VA
-launched Goodwill Games
-had foreign bureaus
-net worth in 1999 was $5 billion
-By 1975 transformed it into a “superstation” that transmitted sports and entertainment across the country via satellite. This would become TBS.
Roger Ailes
-President of CNBC: Since Ailes took over at CNBC, ratings have increased 50% and business profits have tripled
-In 1991, he persuaded a syndicator to bring Rush Limbaugh from radio to television. He became executive producer of the late-night show.
-He introduced NBC Channel, America’s Talking, which debuted in 1994, before it was converted into the MSNBC Cable Network. It carried 14 hours of original programming everyday including Ailes’ own show, “Straight Forward with Roger Ailes.”

-In 1996, he was appointed CEO of Fox News and Fox News Channel and according to his biographical note, “also serves as a senior advisor to Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and CEO of News Corporation Limited.”
Bernard Shaw
-also reported on Tiananmen Square
-reported for CNN as anchor in Baghdad during Gulf War
-held anchor spot at CNN
Robert MacNeil
-began career with Reuters in 1955
-30 min show on one major topic and later to one-hour format
-on PBS
-NewsHour
Jim Lehrer
-brought print journalism experience to public TV
-30 min show on one major topic and later to one-hour format
-on PBS
-NewsHour
-later MacNeil-Lehrer PRoductions sold 2/3 of holdings to Lierty Media (nation's largets cable system company)
Robert C. Maynard
-most prominent black print journalist
-editor, publisher, and owner of Oakland Tribune
-first black to direct a general circulation metro daily
-self-educated
-got job at York Gazette in Penn., won Nieman Fellowship to Harvard, reported for Wash. Post, nd directed media minorities programs at Columbia and Berkeley before becoming editor in heavily black-opulated Oakland in 1979 for the Gannett group which then sold the paper to him
-sold the paper to Alameda Newspaper Group
FCC Fairness doctrine
-started bb/c of probs of editorializing on the air and to show fairness in presenting all sides of public issues
-1941 ruling "Mayflower decision" b/c on renewal of Boston station license held by Mayflower Broadcasting Corp.
-FCC said broadcaster can't be advocate
-1949: FCC decided broadcasters could and should editorialie with fairness
-let fair access to the air and present all sides of controversial issues
-requirement to e fair b/c airwaves are public property (Congress act) and FCC given power to license broadcasters in areas of public interest, convenience, and neecessity
-broadcasters need make "good faith" effort
-braodcast executives dislike that have to fear government intervention when cover controversial issues
-Cronkite was against doctrine
-FCC eventually gave it up
Heywood Broun
-liberal and combative columnist for NY World-Telegram sounded a call for action in his syndicated column for 8/7/1933
-chstised fellow newspaper workers for not having formed a union like those of others
-Newspaper Guild president
-started Guild Reporter
Linda Foley, Medill alum
-Guild merged with Communication Workers of America
-first woman president of the above
A.J. Liebling
Started journalism career in 1925 as a reporter for the Evening Bulletin in Providence, Rhode Island
Worked briefly in sports department of New York Times but fired for listing the name of a referee as “ignoto,” Italian for unknown.
Worked for New York World
Began career at the New Yorker in 1935 – war correspondent writing from England, Europe, and Africa. Participated in Normandy landings on D-Day
After WWII, Liebling continued working for the New Yorker as an editorial writer with a monthly column “The Wayward Press.”
Analyzed the US Press
Emphasized the media as any other subject matter open to public scrutiny
Stressed that the more that the audience understood of how the media works, the more critical they can be
-wayward columns
Upton Sinclair (student presentation on his “The Brass Check”)
-wrote The Jungle (muckraker/realism)
-Brass Check was bitter and criticized newspapers for taking influence from advetisers and owners (false, cowardly press dominated by biz offices and advertisers)
Hutchins Commission (student presentation)
-funded by Henry R. Luce after WWII for private study by Commission on Freedom fo the Press
-Chancellor Robert M. Hutchins of UChicago headed the commission and had social-sci profs outside of journalism field
-no journalists invited sit on commission
-summary report was "A Free and Responsible Press" (1947)
-sponsored publication of important books (Government and Mass Communications, Freedom of the Press, and The American Radio)
-hear over 120 cases
-determinations not legally enforceble
-participants also waived rights to litigate matter after determination
-present sides and council discussed the issues and votes on them the same day
-decisions publicized through local media
-study responsibilities and character of American press
Ombudsmen (student presentation)
-monitor newspaper's performance and review public complaints
-began at Louisville Courier-Journal in 1967
-Organization of News Ombudsmen formed in 1980
-educate on position of news ombudsmen and aid in establishing ombudsmen in newspapers and elsewhere
Katherine Fanning
-editor of Christian Science monitor
Cathleen Black
-president of Hearst MAgazines in late 1995
-oversaw financial performan and development of mags like Cosmopolitan, Esquire, Good Housekeeping Harper's Bazaar and Redbook
-25 top most powerful women in Americn business (Fortune)
-moved from head of American Newspaper Publshers Assocation to presidnt of Newspaper Association of America