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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Which of the above represents the Axon?
A.A
B.B
C.C
D.D
B (See Dia A- axon chart)
2. Which of the above represents the motor end plate?
A.A
B.B
C.C
D.D
A. (See Dia A-axon chart)
3. Which of the following represents is not true about the resting membrane potential?
A.The resting membrane potential is sustained partly by the actions of the sodium (Na+)/potassium (K+) pump.
B.The membrane potential will become more negative during an action potential (AP)
C.It is subject to excitatory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory post synaptic potentials (lPSPs)
D.The resting membrane potential is negative
B. The membrane potential will become more negative during an action potential (AP)
4. True or False. Steroid hormones. unlike polypeptide hormones, exert their effect(s) directly in the cell nucleus. A. True B. False
A. True
For questions 5-7, please determine if the following descriptive statement is characteristic of a neurotransmitter or hormone:
5. Neurotransmitter or Hormone: Allows neurons to communicate with each other A. Neurotransmitter B. Hormone
A. Neurotransmitter
6. Neurotransmitter or Hormone: Released from a gland (e.g. adrenal medulla)

A. Neurotransmitter
B. Hormone
B. Hormone
7. Neurotransmitter or Hormone: Catecholamine
A. Neurotransmitter B. Hormone
B. Hormone
8. Which of the following responses is a characteristic response of the sympathetic nervous system?
A. Increased gastric motility (e.g. digestion)
B. Decreased heart rate
C. Increased oxygen consumption (VO2)
D. Decreased muscular strength
C. Increased oxygen consumption (VO2)
9. True or False. The parasympathetic nervous system is dominant just prior to starting a race or competition.
A. True B. False
B. False
10. Which of the following hormones could cause hypoglycemia if a high fructose (sugar) meal/beverage is consumed just prior to exercise?
A. Glucagon
B. Insulin
C. Growth hormone
D. Testosterone
B. Insulin
11.Which of the following hormones would most likely be released during a long distance activity (e.g. like running an ultra marathon> 3 hours) to help prevent dehydration?
A. Cortisol
B. antidiuretic hormone
C. Glycerol
D. Norepinephrine
B. antidiuretic hormone
12. Which of the following hormones is considered “catabolic” and is released when blood glucose levels are extremely low?
A. Cortisol
B. Antidiuretic hormone
C. Growth hormone
D. Testosterone
A. Cortisol
13. True or False. Which of the following arc considered “catecholamines” ?
A. cortisol/Antidiuretic hormone
B. Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
C. Growth hormone/Norepinehprine
D.Glycerol/Epinephrine
B. Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
14. Which of the following statements is true concerning the above diagram? (See dia B)
A. The reaction has a negative AG, and is exergonic.
B. The reaction has a positive AG, and is exergonic.
C. The reaction has a negative AG, and is endergonic.
D. The final state (B) has more energy than the initial state (A)
A. The reaction has a negative AG, and is exergonic (see chart b)
15. True or False. Like every reaction, this reaction would proceed spontaneously, without the need of an enzyme.
A.True B. False
B. False
16. Which of the following energetic pathways would not be dominant during the first 10 seconds of high-intensity exercise? (Of note, ATP== adenosine triphosphate; ADP adenosine diphosphate, AMP= adenosine monophosphate, Pi= inorganic phosphate, Cr= creatine. 02= oxygen, H20= water, C = carbon, H= hydrogen, and PCr= phosphocreatine)
A. ATP + H2O atpase ADP + Pi + PI+ heat +Energy
B. ADP + PCr crealinc kmase ATP+ Cr
C. C57H104O6 + 80 O2 --> 57 CO2 + 52 H20
D. ADP +ADP myoklnasc ATP + AMP
C. C57H104O6 + 80 O2 --> 57 CO2 + 52 H20
17. In the diagram above(Dia C), which line would represent the dominant energetic pathway within the first 10 seconds of high-intensity activity?
A. A, because it represents oxidative energy sources
B. A. because it represents immediate energy sources
C. B, because it represents immediate energy sources
D. C. because it represents oxidative energy sources
B. A. because it represents immediate energy sources (see chart c)
18. Which of the following metabolic pathways would glycogen he utilized?
A. Glycolysis
B. Immediate energy system
C. Beta oxidation
D. Gluconeogenesis
A. Glycolysis
19. What is the hormone and translocation protein responsible for bringing glucose from the blood stream into the muscle cell during exercise’?
A. Cortisol and Norepinephrine
B. Growth hormone and Norepinephrine
C. Glucagon and GLUT 4
D. Insulin and GLUT 4
D. Insulin and GLUT 4
20. Which enzyme is responsible for phosphorylating (adding a phosphate) glucose:therefore, trapping it into the cell for subsequent glycolysis or storage?
A. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
B. Hexokinase
C. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
D. Glycogen phosphorylase
B. Hexokinase
21. Which enzyme is responsible for regulating glycolysis (e.g. also known as the rate-limiting step in glycolysis)?
A. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
B. Hexokinase
C. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
D. Glycogen phosphorylase
A. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
22. Which enzyme is responsible for influencing the formation of lactate versus pyruvate, and can be influenced with training (endurance versus high intensity)?
A. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
B. Hexokinase
C. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
D. Glycogen phosphorylase
C. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
23. Which of the following conditions would increase the production of lactate?
A. A trained cyclist maintaining a steady state volume of oxygen uptake (V01) at intensity 50% of his/her maximum VO2max
B. A trained sprint athlete with a high amount of LDHm (muscular type) enzyme activity during a race, and the need of the glycolytic pathway at a fast rate
C. A trained endurance runner with a high amount of LDHh (heart type) enzyme activity during a race, and the need of the glycolytic pathway at a slow rate
D. An increased ability of the mitochondria to accept the reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH), thus plenty of 02 in the electron transport chain.
B. A trained sprint athlete with a high amount of LDHm (muscular type) enzyme activity during a race, and the need of the glycolytic pathway at a fast rate.
24. True or False. The accumulation of lactate will begin to inhibit the regulatory enzyme of glycolysis.
A. True B False
A. True
25. Which of the following is not characteristic of B-oxidation?
A. Results in NADH and FADH formation
B. Results in lactate formation
C. Results in Acetyl CoA formation
D. Utilizes free fatty acids
B. Results in lactate formation
26. Which of the following metabolic pathways would produce the greatest (net) amount of ATP?
A. 3 molecules of glycogen (from stored glycogen in the muscle) metabolized to lactate
B. 4 molecules of glucose (transported in the blood stream from the liver) metabolized to lactate
C. 3 molecules of glycogen metabolized to H20
D. 16 carbon fatty acid metabolized to H20
D. 16 carbon fatty acid metabolized to H20
27. Which of the following metabolic pathways would produce the least (net) amount of ATP?
A. 3 molecules of glycogen (from stored glycogen in the muscle) metabolized to lactate
B. 4 molecules of glucose (transported in the blood stream from the liver) metabolized to lactate
C. 3 molecules of glycogen metabolized to H20
D. 16 carbon fatty acid metabolized to H20
B. 4 molecules of glucose (transported in the blood stream from the liver) metabolized to lactate
28. Which of the following is true concerning the Krebs cycle?
A. It produces an equivalent of ATP (which is (GTP), NADH. and FADH
B. Acetyl CoA produces LDH
C. It is regulated by PFK
D. None of the products formed are shuttled to the electron transport chain
A. It produces an equivalent of ATP (which is (GTP), NADH. and FADH
29. Which of following substrates would yield the highest amount of ATP over a long period of time (e.g. >60 minutes)?
A. Glucose from the bloodstream metabolized via g]ycolysis
B. Glucose stored in the muscle metabolized via glycolysis
C. Phosphocreatine regenerating ATP
D. Free fatty acid metabolized via B-oxidation
D. Free fatty acid metabolized via B-oxidation
30. Which of the following is true concerning lactate (and the associated H+ ion) production during exercise?
A. Lactate (and the associated H+ ion) clearance is unaffected with endurance exercise training.
B. Lactate (and the associated H+ ion) only accumulates at low intensity exercise (e.g. 30-40% VO2max)
C. Lactate (and the associated H+ ion) increases the activity of PFK
D. Active recovery helps reduce lactate (and the associated H+ ion) concentration
D. Active recovery helps reduce lactate (and the associated H+ ion) concentration
31. True or False. Resting ATP concentration can be significantly increased with exercise training, and may increase performance. A. True B. False
B. False
32. True or False. Resting PCr concentration can he significantly increased with supplementation in conjunction with exercise training, and may increase performance.
A. True B. False
A. True
33. If lactate is converted back into pyruvate and NADH during exercise, where will the NADH go?
A. Into the Krehs cycle for further metabolism
B. Electron transport chain for further metabolism
C. Nowhere, it will just he stored in the muscle
D. It will be converted into insulin
B. Electron transport chain for further metabolism
34. Which of the following tests warrant several visits to a laboratory for repeated testing at different intensities?
A. Maximal lactate steady sate (MLSS)
B. Lactate threshold (LT)
C. VOmax
D. Wingate
A. Maximal lactate steady sate (MLSS)
35. Which of following 3 main energy systems supply the greatest potential amount of ATP?

A. Immediate energy systems
B. Non oxidative
C. Oxidative
C. Oxidative
36. What does VO2 represent?

A. A measure of pulmonary health

B. A measure of lactate production versus removal

C. Enzyme efficiency
D. A measurement of cardio-respiratory fitness
D. A measurement of cardio-respiratory fitness
37. Who will reach a plateau steady state V0 2 (steady state) faster during constant intensity exercise?
A. Endurance trained individual
B. Untrained individual
A. Endurance trained individual
38. Who will have a greater 02 deficit at the beginning of exercise?
A. Endurance trained individual
B. Untrained individual
B. Untrained individual
39, Who will have a higher lactate measurement when running at 8 miles/hour?
A. Endurance trained individual
B. Untrained individual.
B. Untrained individual
40. Who will have a higher relative V02 max?
A. Endurance trained individual
B. Untrained individual
A. Endurance trained individual
41. Which of the following describes(Defines) a metabolic equivalency (MET)?

A. Measures lactate formation
B. Measures intensity of exercise and is equal to 3.5 ml 02/kg/min
C. Measures substrate utilization
D. Resting metabolic rate
B. Measures intensity of exercise and is equal to 3.5 ml 02/kg/min
42. What effect does high intensity training have on Phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration
A. Increases phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration
B. Decreases phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration
C. Has no effect on phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration
A. Increases phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration
43. What effect does endurance training have on mitochondria density and fatty acid use during exercise?

A. Increases mitochondria density and Fatty acid use
B. Decreases mitochondria density and Fatty acid use
C. Has no effect on mitochondria density and fatly acid use
A. Increases mitochondria density and Fatty acid use
44. Which of the following statements best represents relative V02?
A. Represents oxygen uptake relative to body weight
B. Represents carbon dioxide uptake relative to body weight
C. Represent oxygen production relative to body weight
D. Represents carbon dioxide production relative to body weight
A. Represents oxygen uptake relative to body weight
45. Which of the following statements best represents resting metabolic rate (RMR)?
A. Represents the sum of all metabolic activity at rest
B. Represents maximal oxygen consumption
C. Represents the sum of all metabolic activity at maximal exercise
D. Is not related to lean body mass
A. Represents the sum of all metabolic activity at rest
46. Which of the following statements is true concerning kcals?
A. Represents the sum of all metabolic activity at rest
B. Represents maximal oxygen consumption during exercise
C. The amount used is linearly related to the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise
D. The amount used is inversely related to the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise
C. The amount used is linearly related to the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise
47. Which of the following is not a laboratory/field test used to assess the immediate energy system
A. Wingate test
B. 1 mile walk
C. Jump test
B. 1 mile walk
48. From the correct answer in question 47, what would this test (e.g. the correct answer from question 47) indirectly estimate (measure)?
A.POWER
B. Fatigue index
C. VO2max
C. VO2 max
49. Which of the following will supply energy during the oxygen deficit stage of exercise?
A. Immediate energy system
B. Glycolysis with an end product of H20 (e.g. slow glycolysis)
C. B-oxidation
A. Immediate energy system
50. At what intensity would muscle glycogen supply the greatest amount of energy?
A. Low intensity (40% VO2max)
B. High intensity (90% VO2max)
B. High intensity (90% VO2max)
BONUS #1 Which of the following represents the highest intensity of exercise? A. 10 METS B. 5 times a person’s resting energy level (estimated) C. 38 mL O2/kg/min - D. Energy level of sitting in class
c. 38 mL/kg/min
BONUS #2. consider the following information: 2 subjects running on a treadmill at the same speed (8 miles per hour): Subject A running at a V02 of 4.200 L/min and weighs 154 lbs (pounds) Subject B running at a V02 of 3.890 L/min and weighs 147 lbs (pounds) According to relative V02 values running at this speed, which subject is in better shape (e.g. more efficient)?

A. Subject A

B. Subject B
B. Subject B