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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the tissue lying outside the skull called?

What does each of its letter represent?
C=connective tissue
L=loose connective tissue
the aponeurosis of the scalp connects which 2 muscles?
blood supply to the scalp is primarily from the ...

-the frontal area is supplied by branches of the ...
external carotid artery

internal carotid artery
profuse bleeding from scalp lacerations is due to:
-bleeding from both sides of wound due to ... of arteries
-surrounding ... attached to arteries prevents contraction
abundant anastomoses
connective tissue
what is this?
-connective tissue
-surround brain and spinal cord
the 3 layers of meninges are...
that is the outer meningeal layer?
which meningeal layer is deep to the dura, and is thinner? (spider web appearance)
which meningeal layer is intimately attached to the brain tissue?
what are the 2 layers of dura and what do they surround?
periosteal - brain(skull bone)
meningeal - brain and spinal cord
innervation of the dura:
the posterior cranial fossa is innervated by the ... nerves (C#,#)
cervical nerves (C2,3)
innervation of the dura:
the anterior and middle cranial fossa are innervated by the ... nerves (CN#)
trigeminal nerves (CN 5)
what are these?
-3 infoldings of meningeal layer in skull
-into spaces between parts of brain
dural "partitions"
what is the partition called that is mid-sagittal between the right and left cerebral hemispheres?
falx cerebri
what is the partition called that is small, midsagittal, and between the cerebellar hemispheres?
falx cerebelli
what is the partition called that is horizontal between the occipital lobes and cerebellum?
tentorium cerebelli
what are the 2 parts of the epidural space and are they real or potential?
-brain: potential
-spinal cord: real (contains fat and veins; epidural anesthesia)
which space is not a real space, but has "potential"? It's between the dura and arachnoid.
in the vertebral canal, the internal venous plexus is located within ...
hematomas can occur anywhere where there are ...
what is this?
-a line where 4 bones meet
-bone very thin/fragil
-superior to middle meningeal artery (supplies the dura and the skull)
These could be symptoms of what?
-weakness of limb muscles
-dialated pupils
deterioration of cardiovascular and respiratory functions
epidural hematoma caused by a lateral skull fracture at the pterion
which space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a real space?
subarachnoid space
CSF is produced by the ... (in ventricles) and ... "transfer" the CSF to the superior sagittal sinus (transfers it back to venous blood)
choroid plexus
arachnoid granulations
the ... space contains cerebral arteries and veins
Is there a space below the pia?
what is this?
-located within the brain
-fluid filled spaces that are filled with CSF
what produces CSF (inside the brain) and is located in all ventricles?
choroid plexus
Ventricles communicate with the subarachnoid space (outside of the brain) through foramina in roof of medulla: ...(lateral) and ...(midline)
there are 2 ... ventricles, right and left
What is the ventricle pathway (in order of flow)?
-Lateral ventricles (2)
-Interventricular foramina (right and left) - (Foramina of Monro)
-3rd ventricle (midline; thalamus)
-cerebral aqueduct (midbrain)
-4th ventricle (pons and medulla)
tumors in the ... region often block ventricular flows
what is this?
-an increase in the amount of CSF which results from one of 3 things:
-increased production (rare)
-blockage in system
-impaired absorption (doesn't get back to blood as quickly as it should)
which classification of hydrocephalus is this?
-obstruction within the ventricular system
which classification of hydrocephalus is this?
-obstruction in the subarachnoid space (outside the brain) or venous sinuses
what occurs between the 2 layers of periosteum?
venous sinuses
2 major sinuses in the head are... (starting with the most superior one)
-superior longitudinal venous sinus
-transverse sinus
-The medial angle of the eye, the nose and the lips (known as the ... of the face) usually drains through the facial vein.
-But venous blood may go, via the opthalmic vein, to the cavernous sinus. As a result, an infection of the face may spread to the cavernous sinus. This can lead to ... of the nerves running through the cavernous sinus.
danger triangle
what are the 2 arteries that supply all the parts of the brain?
vertebral aa.
internal carotid aa.
the vertebral artery comes into the skull through the ...
foramen magnum
In the Circle of Willis, the blood can flow in ... direction.
the origin of the vertebral arteries is the ...
subclavian artery
what is this describing?
-transverse foramina of C1-C6 (not C7)
-foramen magnum with spinal cord
-join to form basilar a. at pons
-basilar a. ends --> 2 posterior cerebral aa.
vertebral arteries
what is this describing?
-enters skull by way of carotid canal
-Foramen lacerum (not "through) it)
-Branches: anterior cerebral, posterior communicating
-continues laterally as middle cerebral a.
internal carotid arteries
the origin of the internal carotid arteries is the ...
common carotid artery
what is this?
-ballooning out and weak points in walls of arteries
-most common in anterior part of circle of willis
-may cause subarachnoid hematoma
-symptoms: acute explosive headache, stiff neck, initially will have a dialated or "blown" pupil (if ocular motor nerve is compressed)
berry aneurysms
where do spinal arteries branch off of?
vertebral arteries