Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fuctions of cytoskeleton:
-... of cell
-muscular ...
-cell ... changes
-... of organelles in the cytoplasm
-...-ion storage
-site of ... activity
movement
contraction
shape
movement
calcium
enzyme
microfilaments are #-# nm in diameter and are made up of ...
5-7
actin
actin is always the same as the ... band
I
microtubules are # nm in diameter and are made up of ... (alpha and beta)

They have ... movement (grow on one end and dissociate off the other)
25
tubulin
dynamic
intermediate filaments
-# nm
-made up of fibrous ... that wrap around each other to form a bundle
-maintains the ... of the cell
-stable
10
subunits
shape
... and ... proteins help to stabilize actin
tropomyosin
capping
some filament associated proteins will control the ... and ... of filament monomers
assembly
disassembly
movement usually involves the breakdown of ... and depends on which type of cytoskeletal filament?
ATP
microtubules
which type of cytoskeletal filament has mainly non-muscle actin and other associated proteins involved in actin polymerization and de-polymerization?
microfilaments
microfilaments attach to plasma membrane and are involved in defining the ... morphology of the cell
-spectrin (an actin associated protein) interacts with some membrane proteins and helps to maintain the ... shape of RBCs
surface
bi-concave
a defect in spectrin leads to the condition of the RBC becoming ..., which is called hereditary spherocytosis
rounded
Microfilaments:
-actin filaments are linked together by ... proteins
cross linking
microfilaments:
-other proteins sever the actin filaments into smaller fragments or cap the actin molecules to inhibit ...
polymerization
microvilli and its surrounding plasma membrane are also stabilized by ... actin filaments
cross-linked
which filaments are the most stable?
intermediate filaments
what helps hold actin filaments together?
fimbrin
the actin filaments of the microvilli are anchored to the ... which is a specialized area of the apical cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells containing a network of ... molecules and intermediate filaments which are thought to stiffen the microvilli by keeping the actin bundles at a right angle to the apical surface of the cell
terminal web
spectrin
the terminal web has fibers that are running ... to the apical membrane
parallel
cilia is usually found at the ... surface of the cell
apical
microfilaments:
..., a family of metabolites excreted by molds, paralyzes many kinds of vertebrate cell movement - including cell locomotion, phagocytosis, cytokinesis and folding of epithelia sheets into tubes.
cytochalasins
the principle action of the cytochalasins is to bind specifically to fast-growing ... ends of actin filaments
plus
cytochalasins is an important drug because it can be used as a treatement for ... cells
cancer
microtubules are formed by the polymerization of ... molecules.
-# tubulin heterodimers are present in one complete turn (protofilament) of the spiral
tubulin
13
microtubules are unstable and are liable to disassemble into ...
tubulin
where do microtubules come from?
examples: basal bodies, centrioles
microtubule-organizing centers
centrioles are always located at ... to each other
right angles
centrioles also have other proteins associated with it. --> centrosomes = made up of centrioles and other associated proteins. Located at the center of the cell (along with the ...)
golgi apparatus
microtubule-organizing centers:
-cylindrical structures, composed primarily of highly organized microtubules (# sets of microtubule triplets arranged in a ... fashion)
9
pinwheel
prior to mitosis, the centriole duplicates itself and the resulting 2 pairs move to the opposite poles of the cell and become ... for the mitotic spindles

-chromosomes are attached to the ...

-what phase of mitosis to the chromosomes start migrating towards each end?
organizing centers
microtubules
anaphase
cells stuck in ... will make cells die, as in cancer cells
metaphase
Vinblastin, taxol and vincristine (to name a few) are agents that interfer with microtubule dynamics.

They are useful in the treatment of ...
cancers
Microtubule-organizing centers:
-basal bodies act as the templates that control the development of the axoneme subunits of ... or ...
cilia
flagella
main function of basal body is ... for cilia
movement
microtubules play a role in development and maintenance of cell form and shape due to inherent rigidity and are also important in ... of organelles
intracellular transport (movement)
what are these?
-rope-like polymers which play a structural and tension-bearing roles in cell
-stable structures which form a "basket" around the nucleus (lamina)
intermediate filaments
intermediate filaments exist as ...-specific forms based on AA sequence

because of this, they are important for diagnostic for different types of tumors
tissue
epithelial cells contain what type of intermediate filament?
keratin filament
neurons contain ... (int. filament)
neurofilaments
fibroblasts and glial cells contain ...(int. filament)
vimetin-containing filaments
muscle cells and all nucleated cells contain ... (intermediate filament)
nuclear lamina
since cells of different tissues produce different IF proteins, the tissue of origin for metastatic cancer cells may be identified according to the ... of intermediate filament

This helps in treating the cancer
type
In Alzheimer's disease, ... (IFs) form ... tangles within affected neurons
neurofilaments
neurofibrillary
the nuclear envelop is directly connected to the rER and is surrounded internally and externally by a network of the IF called ...
lamina
the network inside the nucleus is called the ... and it supports the ... membrane
nuclear lamina
inner nuclear
in the fatal disease, ..., individuals make antibodies against one or more of their own desmosomal linker glycoproteins which bind with keratin type IF. This causes disruption of desmosomes between skin cells and blistering.
-causes disruption of keratin
-skin tends to break apart
pemphigus